Altruism and Popularity
Eda Egilmez, Janett Naylor-Tincknell
APA 6th edition
Egilmez, E., & Naylor-Tincknell, J. (2017). Altruism and Popularity. IJEM - International Journal of Educational Methodology, 3(2), 65-74. doi:10.12973/ijem.3.2.65
Egilmez E., and Naylor-Tincknell J. 2017 'Altruism and Popularity', IJEM - International Journal of Educational Methodology , vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 65-74. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/ijem.3.2.65
Chicago 16th edition
Egilmez, Eda and Naylor-Tincknell, Janett . "Altruism and Popularity". (2017)IJEM - International Journal of Educational Methodology 3, no. 2(2017): 65-74. doi:10.12973/ijem.3.2.65
Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and determined by group members. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, cooperating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could affect individuals' popularity. Altruism has been studied in different disciplines with the general definition of cooperative behavior that has a cost to the actor with a benefit to the receiver. The common theme in all perspectives is that there is an inevitable cost for the actor with a benefit to the receiver. During the current research, surveys and vignettes were used to collect data. Participants were recruited through an online site, and were compensated for their time and participation via payment of money. As a result of the research, it was observed that helpful behaviors were highly related to the items of empathy, likeability, and popularity. Findings suggest that when gratefulness and helpful behaviors are present, individuals are rated higher in several positive qualities. The unique finding of the study is that both gratefulness and altruism are highly effective resources in interpersonal relations. Purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between altruistic behaviors that are towards friends and popularity by the endorsement of aforementioned hypotheses and theories.
Keywords: Altruism, popularity, evolutionary psychology, social psychology.
Adams, G. R. (1983). Social competence during adolescence: Social sensitivity, locus of control, empathy, and peer popularity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12, 203-211. doi: 10.1007/BF02090986
Batson, C. D., Dyck, J. L., Brandt, J. R., Batson, J. G., Powell, A. L., McMaster, M. R., & Griffitt, C. (1988). Five studies testing two new egoistic alternatives to the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 52-77. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Buss, D. M. (2008). The Evolution of Desire-Revised. New York, NY: Basic books
Buss, D. M. (2015). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Caravita, S., & Cillessen, A. H. (2012). Agentic or communal? Associations between interpersonal goals, popularity, and bullying in middle childhood and early adolescence. Social Development, 21, 376-395. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00632.x
Cillessen, A. H. N., & Bukowski, W. M. (Eds.). (2000). Recent advances in the measurement of acceptance and rejection in the peer system: New direction for child and adolescent development. 88, 3-10. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.
Clarken, R. (2011). Authenticity, autonomy, and altruism: Keys to transformation. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Equity Within the Classroom Conference, Houghton, MI.Cozby, P. C. (2009). Methods of behavioral research. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Darley, J. M., & Batson, C. D. (1973). "From Jerusalem to Jericho": A study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 100-108. doi: 10.1037/h0034449
Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 91-119. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.101.1.91
Flynn, S. V., & Black, L. L. (2011). An emergent theory of altruism and self-interest. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89, 459-469. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.2011.tb02843.x
Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 392-404. doi: 10.1037/a0017346
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90039-6
Hamilton, W. D. (1972), Altruism and related phenomena, mainly in the social insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 3, 193-232. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.03.110172.001205
Kitcher, P. (2010). Varieties of altruism. Economics and Philosophy, 26, 121-148. doi: 10.1017/S0266267110000167
Latane, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 215-221. doi: 10.1037/h0026570
Le Galliard, J. F., Ferrière, R., & Dieckmann, U. (2003). The adaptive dynamics of altruism in spatially heterogeneous populations. Evolution, 57, 1-17. doi: 10.1554/0014-3820
Li, N., Kirkman, B. L., & Porter, C. O. (2014). Toward a model of work team altruism. Academy of Management Review, 39(4), 541-565. doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0160
Marcus, R. F. (1980). Empathy and popularity of preschool children. Child Study Journal, 10, 133-145. doi: 10.1037/h0081268
Marks, P. E., Cillessen, A. H., & Crick, N. R. (2012). Popularity contagion among adolescents. Social Development, 21, 501-521. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00647.x
Mayeux, L. (2011). Effects of popularity and gender on peers' perceptions of prosocial, antisocial, and jealousy-eliciting behaviors. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 57, 349-374. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2011.0020
Mayeux, L., & Cillessen, A. H. (2008). It's not just being popular, it's knowing it, too: The role of self‐perceptions of status in the associations between peer status and aggression. Social Development, 17, 871-888. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00474.x
Sabongui, A. G., Bukowski, W. M., & Newcomb, A. F. (1998). The peer ecology of popularity: The network embeddedness of a child's friend predicts the child's subsequent popularity. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, (81), 83-91. doi: 10.1002/cd.23219988106
Swank, J. M., Ohrt, J. H., & Robinson, E. M. (2013). A qualitative exploration of counseling students' perception of altruism. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 52, 23-38. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2013.00030.x.
Terry, R., & Coie, J. D. (1991). A comparison of methods for defining sociometric status among children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 867-880. doi: 10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.117
Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1), 35-57.
Van Vugt, M., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2006). Psychological adaptations for prosocial behavior: The altruism puzzle. In: M. Schaller, J. Simpson, & D. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolution and social psychology (pp. 237–262). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Ward, T., & Durrant, R. (2013). Altruism, empathy, and sex offender treatment. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(3-4), 66-71. doi: 10.1037/h0100986
Wyatt, G. A., West, S. A., & Gardner, A. (2013). Can natural selection favour altruism between species? Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26, 1854-1865. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12195