logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
english instruction rural areas secondary school in china

A Survey Study of Middle School English Instruction in Four Rural Districts in Beijing

Ran Hu , Guili Zhang

This survey study provides a holistic picture of English teachers’ qualification and the status quo of English instruction in secondary school c.


This survey study provides a holistic picture of English teachers’ qualification and the status quo of English instruction in secondary school classrooms in four lowest-achieving rural disctricts in Beijing, China. It covers a wide variety of aspects related to language instruction, including teachers’ professional background and credentials, lesson preparation and instructional materials, teachers’ instructional languages, factors that limit English instruction, roles teachers play in classrooms, and classroom instruction on pronunciation and fluency, vocabulary, grammar, and comprehension. Results shows how inequality in resources and the lack of teaching standards and qualifications can negatively impact students, further hindering their academic and professional opportunities. The findings provide valuable information to the teacher preparation and professional development in these districts and hopefully bring attention to the Department of Education in China about the educational needs of the low achieving rural districts in Beijing.

Keywords: English instruction, rural areas, secondary school in China.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Abbott, R., Mickail, T., Richards, T., Renninger, A., Hidi, S. E., Beers, S., & Berninger, V. (2017). Understanding interest and self-efficacy in the reading and writing of students with persisting specific learning disabilities during middle childhood and early adolescence. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 3(1), 41-64. http://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.3.1.41

Chen, H. F. (2014). 中学英语教师在课堂教学中的角色 [Roles teachers play in middle school English classrooms]. Campus English, 06. Retrieved on December 20, 2019 from http://www.qikan.com.cn

Deng, D. X., & Jiang, S. Y. (2018). 略论中学英语语法教学的原则和方法 [Rules of grammar teaching in middle schools]. Foreign Language Studies/外国语文论丛,8380-391.

Gao. H. (2014). China’s Education Gap. The New York Times. Retrieved on November 13, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/05/opinion/sunday/chinas-education-gap.html

Gorgoz S., & Tican, C. (2019). Investigation of middle school students’ self-regulation skills and vocabulary learning strategies in foreign language. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(1), 25-42. http://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.6.1.25

Guo, S. Y. (2016). 新的考试和招生政策背景下初中英语教学刍议 [Discussion of middle school English instruction under the new testing system]. English Teachers, 16(16), 8-14.

Hang, P. (2019). 中学英语教学核心素养和课堂语言教学探究 [An investigation of the core quality of middle school English instruction and classroom language instruction]. Middle School Curriculum and Instruction, 7, 253.

He, H. (2016). 北京怀柔一中召开英语“四位一体”教学法培训会 [Four-in-one teaching pedagogy in Huairou No.1 Middle School]. Research on Foreign Language Teaching in Basic Education, 4, 64.

Hu, R. (2013). English vocabulary and comprehension instruction in secondary schools in China. New Waves: Educational Research & Development, 16(2). 24-39.

Hu, R. (2009). English reading instruction in elementary schools in China. Reading Matrix, 9, 150-165.

Hu, R. & Adamson, B. (2012). Social ideologies and the English curriculum in China: A historical overview, Perspectives on Teaching and Learning English Literacy in China (pp. 1 - 17). New York, NY: Springer International Publisher. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4994-8_1.

Hu, R. & Baumann. J. (2014). English Reading Instruction in China: Chinese Teachers' Perspectives and Comments. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 14(1), 26-60.

Jia, J. (2017). 北京各区教育实力对比,看各区教育排名变化 [The comparison of education strength in Beijing and the ranking of education in Beijing]. Retrieved on September 10, 2018, from http://www.ysxiao.cn/c/201708/13866.html

Kissau, S., & Hiller, F. (2013). Reading comprehension strategies: An international comparison of teacher preferences. Research in Comparative and International Education, 8(4), 437-454. https://doi.org/10.2304/rcie.2013.8.4.437

Lan. Y. (2017). 培养中学生英语阅读理解的思路探索 [How to cultivate middle school students’English reading comprehension]. Education for Chinese After-school, 4, 93.

Li X., & Cutting J. (2011). Rote learning in Chinese culture: Reflecting active Confucian-based memory strategies. In L. Jin, & M. Cortazzi (Eds.), Researching Chinese Learners. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230299481_2

Li, Y. (2019). 中学英语语法教学探究 [An investigation on middle school English grammar instruction]. Journal of Changchun Education Institute, 35(2), 73-75.

Liu, J. (2019). 中学英语词汇教学策略探究 [An investigation of middle school English vocabulary instruction]. Course Education Research, 35, 101-102.

MOE. (2006). 亿中国人学英语 超英语母语国家总人口 [Three hundred million Chinese learning, outnumber the total English speakers in the world]. Retrieved on December 19, 2019, from http://culture.people.com.cn/GB/22219/4239013.html

MOE. (2011). 全日制衣服教育普通高级中学英语课程标准 (实验稿) [National English Curriculum Standard – Experimental version. Beijing, China: Beijing Normal University Press.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/report.pdf

Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Qi, Y. J. (2013, November). 北京市农村地区中小学教师所学专业与所教科目不匹配性现状分析--以北京市平谷区为例 [An analysis of the mismatch between primary and secondary school teachers' majors and subjects in rural areas of Beijing - Taking Pinggu District of Beijing as an example]. Paper presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of Disciplinary Academic Committee of Education Management Branch of China Education Society, Ningbo, China.

Skinner, B., & Abbott, L. (2013). An exploration of differences in cultural values in teacher education pedagogy: Chinese English language teacher trainees’ perceptions of effective teaching practice review. Teacher Development, 17(2), 228-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2012.753937

Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2017). People’s Republic of China Teachers’ Law. Retrieved on December 8, 2019, from http://www.yangxianxiaoxue.com/jydd/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=28257 

Sun, D. H., & Sun, Y. H. (2007). 国外英语教材的编写特色及设计思路评析 [An analysis of the features and design ideas of foreign English textbooks]. Foreign Language teaching in Schools, 8, 6-10.

Tindall, E. & Nisbet, D. (2010). Exploring the essential components of reading. Journal of Adult Education, 39, 1-9. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ891080.pdf

Wang. W., & Gao, X. (2008). English language education in China: A review of selected research. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29, 380-399. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630802147908

Wu. W. Y (2007). 分层教学在英语课外阅读指导中的运用 [The application of stratified teaching in English Extracurricular reading practice] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

Xia, Q. (2019).  朗读训练对英语学习能力的影响 [-*The impact of read-aloud to English learning]. Jiangxi Education – Elementary Education, 6, 87.

Xu, C. X., & An, J. (2014). 新形势下英语教师在课堂教学中的角色定位研究 [A study on the role of English teachers in classroom teaching under the new situation]. Journal of Inner Mongolia Normal University (Educational Science), 27(8), 87-89.

Yang, Y. (2019). 初中英语有效阅读策略的研究 [Effective reading strategies for middle school English learning]. Course English Research, 4, 107.

Yao, C. (2012). Difference analysis of economic development among Beijing districts and counties. In D. Tan (Ed.), Technology for Education and Learning (pp.195-204). Springer: New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27711-5_27

Yao, Y. M. (2014). 试论如何在初中英语教学中培养学生的语言交际能力--以北京市平谷区初中英语课堂教学为例 [How to cultivate students' communicative competence in junior middle school English Teaching – taking Pinggu district for example]. China Extracurricular Education, 7, 81-82.

Yuan,R. (2017). Appropriating national curriculum standards in classroom teaching: Experiences of novice language teachers in China. International Journal of Educational Research, 83, 55-64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.02.011

Zhang, H. R. (2014). 初中英语教学情境创设的适切性探究 [An investigation of situated learning in middle school English instruction].  Middle School English: Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 20. Retrieved on February 5, 2020 from https://wenku.baidu.com/view/5b63940d59f5f61fb7360b4c2e3f5727a4e92402.html

Zhang, J. J. (2017). 英语专业课堂中教师母语使用的实证研究 [An empirical study on the use of teachers' mother tongue in English class]. Overseas English, 10, 67-68, 87.

Zhang, J. X. (2018). An empirical research on using leveled reading to develop junior middle school students’ reading literacy and its inspiration.  Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 38(7), 73-80.

Zhu, D. Y. (2017). An investigation on improving middle school students’ reading comprehension. English Teachers, 17(22), 1004-106.

Zhu, S. H. (2004). 母语在外语教学中的灵活运用 [The use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching]. Foreign Language teaching and Research in Basic Education, 6, 30-31.