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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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RHAPSODE LTD
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College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE

Volume 8 Issue 1 (February 2022)

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Technical and pedagogical counseling as accompaniment benefits teachers’ development. However, there are information gaps on the specific impact of counseling with a socio-formative approach on both professionalization and the improvement of teaching practice. The objective is to analyze the relationship between these three elements. A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was employed. A validated questionnaire was applied to a representative sample of 212 teachers. The information analysis was carried out through statistics: descriptive, correlational, and linear regression, whose level of significance was: <.01-. 05. Teachers consider that technical and pedagogical counseling from socio-formation fosters the development of an ethical life project, promotes problem solving in their educational practice, collaborative work, metacognition, and entrepreneurship (92.78 ± 14.3). The correlational analysis showed a significant relationship between socio-formative pedagogical technical counseling and teaching practice, the latter of which was enhanced by the former. In the linear regression analysis, the best model of pedagogical technical counseling is made from socio-formation, which predicts a 71% improvement of teaching practice. As a result, this form of counseling benefits both professionalization and teaching practice through metacognition.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.1
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Sometimes Finding Nothing is Something: Shrinking the Gap between Emerging Bilingual Learners and English Fluent Students (Case in Point)

emerging bilingual instruction science steam stem

Michael W. Corrigan , Douglas Grove , Sage Andersen , Joseph T. Wong , Bradley S. Hughes


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For United States of America (USA) and other developed countries, science achievement gaps begin to emerge in elementary and primary school. Such gaps between USA student groups typically are connected to socio-economic status (SES) and issues such as students still learning the English language. Through an experimental design, this National Science Foundation funded study explores how integrating the arts into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and leading with a more STEAM-first approach (e.g., curriculum which integrates science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) might provide more equitable science learning opportunities for elementary or primary grade level students. More specifically, the project’s research efforts seek to also examine how integrating the arts into science instruction might help emerging bilingual (EB) students who are simultaneously learning the English language and science. Although results provide somewhat conflicting findings of statistical significance with small to moderate effect sizes, outcomes provide initial evidence that leading with STEAM science instruction before STEM efforts can be beneficial to early readers, and for EB students this benefit is magnified. As the title of this study suggest, sometimes finding nothing is something.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.11
Pages: 11-27
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Teacher morale affects all aspects of the school and education system. Yet, the current status of teaching does not provide a rosy picture as teachers are reported to be demoralized and stressed. This qualitative study explored teachers’ experiences that influence their morale. The study was guided by the research question: How do workplace experiences affect teacher morale in selected primary schools? Qualitative data were gathered through six focus group interviews with 36 teachers in four primary schools and were analyzed using a content analysis framework. Data revealed that teacher morale was low. Participants identified school climate factors such as inappropriate professional development activities and violence as threats to their morale. Furthermore, a lack of parental involvement in the affairs of the school was regarded as a setback by teachers. This study highlighted specific issues that influence teacher morale and contribute to the understanding of the state of their morale. The study recommends that more attention is given to ensuring that teacher morale is enhanced for educational goals to be realized. Improving teacher morale has many benefits in that it helps teachers to maintain a positive attitude and be happy at work.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.29
Pages: 29-38
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Despite findings in the literature on its significance, the acclimatization of teachers into school units is not well organized. Hence, many newly appointed teachers fell as a “foreign body” into school, they do not interact with the other members of staff and they are not actively engaged in school life. This study aims to explore the factors involved in social behavior (collegial relations) among members of the educational community. These factors may affect the acclimatization/reception of teachers who, regardless of their teaching experience, are called to teach for the first time in a new school environment. According to the findings, it is essential the attitudes of teaching staff, in matters of cooperation, to be transformed and a collegial climate in schools to be established. To this end, fostering empathy among teachers through educational activities and enhancing opportunities for cooperation and teamwork inside and outside the classroom would be of significant contribution.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.39
Pages: 39-54
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During the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), English as a foreign language (EFL) students have to study and submit their assignments and quizzes through online systems using electronic files instead of hardcopies. This has created an opportunity for teachers to use computer tools to conduct preliminary assessment of the students’ writing performance and then give advice to them timely. Hence, this paper proposed some indicators which were essay readability scored by Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), length of essays, errors in writing and a method to assist the teachers in providing writing feedback to the students. The results showed a large difference in FRE, the number of words, sentences, paragraphs and errors. The K-means clustering findings were applied to classify groups of students based on writing proficiency indicators. The findings also revealed that the number of words and sentences in the essays indicated some deficiencies. The concept of paragraph should be reinforced while some specific errors such as misspelling, grammatical and typographical errors found need to be eliminated. This study showcased that the computer tools should be integrated to process the students’ essays so that the teachers can pinpoint the problems and make suggestions to their students in appropriate time. Lastly, the results can be served as the guidelines for the teachers to develop and adjust teaching materials pertinent to writing to enhance the writing performance of EFL learners.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.55
Pages: 55-68
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Corresponding to industry trends and changes in engineering education accreditation criteria, non-technical professional skills training is now seen as central to baccalaureate engineering education. Beyond simply developing good managers in the engineering fields, engineering educators have adopted a goal to prepare engineering students to be leaders who can provide vision to their organizations with strong ethical standards. This study investigated engineering undergraduate students’ leadership efficacy development associated with such professional skills as self-awareness, global competence, ethical awareness, creativity, and teamwork skills. Responding to an online survey, 247 engineering undergraduates who were enrolled in an engineering leadership course participated in this study. Results of this study indicated that there are positive associations among the five professional skills (e.g., self-awareness, ethical awareness, global competency, creativity, and teamwork skills), and engineering leadership self-efficacy for engineering undergraduate students. The five professional skills (self-awareness, ethical awareness, global competency, creativity, and teamwork skills) predicted 54% of the overall variance of engineering leadership self-efficacy.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.69
Pages: 69-80
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Technological advances and the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have forced higher education institutions to be innovative in delivering education in their countries. E- assessment using e-portfolio illustrates the importance of assessment practices that promote constructivist perception, allowing students to create their own learning as active participants through innovative learning and assessment activities. The purpose of this paper was to explore lecturer’s understandings on the functionality of e-portfolio as an alternative assessment in an Open Distance e-Learning (ODeL). For this qualitative study, within an interpretative paradigm, interviews were conducted with four lecturers using thematic approach. The findings revealed that e-portfolio is beneficial for assessment in the ODeL as it allows students the opportunity to self-embrace their learning, e-portfolio enhances student-centeredness through authentic assessment practices. However, e-portfolio is not implemented to its potential due to challenges and constraints experienced by lecturers. Based on the findings, it is recommended that training workshops beneficial for lecturers should be conducted at the beginning of the course/module on how to create their e-portfolios. Furthermore, an e-portfolio assessment framework to be facilitated for the successful implementation of e-portfolio assessment strategy.  

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.81
Pages: 81-90
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Gender is ever present in education preparation, school materials, curriculum, and school systems. To improve our knowledge about different facets of gender and the extent to which the depiction of gender has changed over time in picture books, there is a need to dig beneath the surface of questions about gender representation in picture books. Given that in-service teachers have proximity to approximately 75 million K-12 students, how in-service teachers think about gender, gender representation, and their own experiences with gender socialization have important implications on how K-12 students think, act, and feel about gender. In this study, we focused on teachers’ responses to a semester-long assignment about the selection and review of picture books. Specifically, we captured teachers’ perceptions on gendered images evidenced in picture books and to what extent there are changes (i.e., economical, emotional, physical, political, and social) in the central character throughout the book. We also explored if perceived changes were different based on the gender of the characters. Teachers reported four types of changes among the characters in the picture book. Emotionally changes in the books’ central characters emerged as the most commonly reported change among our participants.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.91
Pages: 91-105
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Open educational resources (OER) are an innovation coined to bridge the educational divide by providing free quality learning resources. Consequently, this study explored the perception of the Namibian open and distance learning institutions' perception of the use of OER as a pedagogical approach. The study focused on faculty members from the three public ODL institutions in Namibia. Integrated theories with a qualitative case study and interpretivist paradigm underpin this study. Qualitative methodologies were used to collect and analyse data. This study showed an inconsistency between the faculty members' perceptions and OER use within the ODL institutions in Namibia. Although the faculty members displayed positive attitudes towards the use of OER, very little has been achieved in the use of OER within the institutions for the benefit of the Namibian ODL students. The study identified various challenges that impede OER adoption at the institutional level. Recommendations were formulated to address the identified challenges.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.107
Pages: 107-116
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The present study aims to investigate the problem-solving skills of the students getting professional music training. For this study, the problem-solving inventory was administered to participants from two different universities in Turkey. Participants’ problem-solving skills were assessed in relation to the overall inventory and subscales, and the differences based on grade level, gender, and universities were examined using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results revealed that participants occasionally used their problem-solving skills, rarely felt confident in their problem-solving skills, and occasionally performed the behaviors in the subscales of approach-avoidance and personal control. The grade level differentiated music students’ problem-solving skills in the overall scale and approach-avoidance subscale. It is also found that there are no significant differences in students’ problem-solving skills based on gender. However, the participants’ universities led to significant differences in the approach-avoidance subscale. The results were discussed considering the literature, and the recommendations were suggested due to the results.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.117
Pages: 117-127
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Through an exploration of language practices in an early years setting, this paper aims to examine discourses about transforming monolingual practice generated during an internally driven action research. Based on a small private nursery in an affluent part of London, this action research was conducted with the intention of reviewing internal practices that support young children who speak English as an additional language (EAL). Parents and practitioners took part in an initial questionnaire (n=21). This was followed by semi-structured interviews (n=3) and a focus group (n=5) with practitioners. The data was analysed considering some of the theoretical points proposed by Bourdieu and the discourse analysis tools suggested by van Leeuwen. Despite the recognition of potential barriers, encouraging positive dispositions towards language diversity were identified. The most significant feature of our examination was the value of local knowledge and the diverse language repertoires encountered in the setting. Our analysis evidence that action research can empower practitioners to challenge monolingual mindsets and to move towards an exploration of alternative (plurilingual) ideas, despite the monolingual ethos imposed by the curriculum and other external regulatory forces.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.131
Pages: 129-138
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This study explores the relationship among the internal locus of control, entrepreneurial alertness, entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, and entrepreneurial intentions of college students. The scales of internal locus of control, entrepreneurial alertness, entrepreneurial opportunity recognition, and entrepreneurial intention have been used to conduct a questionnaire survey among 921 undergraduates from four universities in China. The results show four key findings. First, the internal locus of control has a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. Second, entrepreneurial alertness plays a mediating role in the relationship between internal locus of control and entrepreneurial intention. Third, entrepreneurial opportunity recognition plays a mediating role in the relationship between the internal locus of control and entrepreneurial intention. Finally, entrepreneurial alertness and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition have a chain mediation effect on the relationship between the internal locus of control and entrepreneurial intention. The study proposes suggestions and future research directions based on the research results, serving as a reference for entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurship planning of college students.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.141
Pages: 139-149
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Lecturers have different perceptions of the effect of internal continuous assessment (ICASS) on students at tertiary vocational education and training (TVET) colleges. This qualitative multiple case study explored computer practice module lecturer’s experience of internal continuous assessment (ICASS) in three KwaZulu-Natal TVET colleges. Six lecturers were purposively selected from three KwaZulu-Natal TVET colleges. Drawing from an interpretivist perspective, constructivist theory entailing cognitive and social constructivism guided this study. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Collected data were transcribed, categorized into codes and themes emerged using thematic data analysis method. The findings revealed that it was difficult to complete the curriculum due to limited time and assessments methods were limited and did not meet the diverse needs of students. Lecturers had to work beyond the set assessment schedules to cater students who missed or scored below average marks. Moderation and assessment feedback were not considered as a critical aspect in the ICASS. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis hindered the successful implementation of the ICASS. It is recommended that the policy makers should insist TVET college managements to offer specialized in-service training for lecturers’ professional development and upgrade the infrastructure and equipment. Time should be set for teaching activities to enhance effective learning so that extra lectures can be offered to students with limited or no previous computer knowledge and encourage them to follow the comments by lecturers as a corrective assessment feedback. It is concluded that lecturers should use diverse assessment methods to improve students’ ICASS.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.151
Pages: 151-162
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This study aims to determine the expectations of university students on the part of the Higher Education System and to what extent these expectations are met. Phenomenological approach, which is counted among qualitative research models, was utilized as the research model. The data obtained from student interviews were analyzed by content analysis. Findings were presented as themes and categories. The research participants consist of 21 students studying at different universities and programs in the 2020-2021 academic year. This study ascertained that the opinions of participating students in terms of themes, categories and codes and their satisfaction levels vary depending on the university they attend. Students expect from the Higher Education System that it enables them to get to their dream job, curricula and materials based on their needs, qualified lecturers, a foreign language education, academic freedom, a democratic environment, equal opportunities in education, an substructure, socio-cultural and physical-material opportunities, international interaction, practice-oriented opportunities for training/internship and participation in administration. The faculty or program choice is highly determined by the condition of a country, the gained scores in the central examination system, surroundings, offered orientation assistances in secondary education, the quality-perceptions of students related to universities, acquisition of employment and the sufficiency of universities to acquire a profession. Findings of this research made clear, that the level of The Higher Education System responding to the expectations of the students differs according to the possibilities of universities.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.163
Pages: 163-178
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Greek Myths to Co-Build Teacher Identity: Perceptions of Students in the Master of Education Research

higher education myths qualitative research teacher identity

Antonio Giner-Gomis , Marcos Jesús Iglesias-Martinez , Inés Lozano-Cabezas , Perla Mayela Brenes-Maltez


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The objective of this study was to promote the use of metaphorical stories based on classical Greek myths in academic teacher training. The aim is to favour processes of personal assemblage and the constitution of teacher identity. Based on 8 classical myths, 4 of them featuring a female character and another 4 a male character, the group of participants narrated positive as well as disappointing experiences they had lived through during their academic training. Moreover, they selected the myths, among those proposed, that provided the metaphors that best described their specific personal trajectories. Adopting a qualitative approach, we followed a narrative-biographical tradition and collected 37 stories. This narrative corpus was analysed using the AQUAD software. The results showed that classical Greek myths contain and provide a powerful and illuminating narrative scaffolding, helping students to adopt a different perspective in the narration of their own academic trajectories. The myths equally helped them to become more aware of the most genuine life and personal experiences that shaped their own teacher identity.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.179
Pages: 179-189
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There are pedagogical challenges for the ideal balance of online community building and interaction among students and instructors for HyFlex learning. One of the challenges focuses on how instructors can effectively select and design an online discussion modality to promote positive, vigorous, and encouraging online asynchronous discussion to engage students. This research study adopted an exploratory mixed method approach designed to investigate student’s satisfaction level and academic performance with different interface design platforms for online discussion in HyFlex delivery modality education courses. Study results indicated that different interface design for online discussion platforms had a significant impact on students’ academic achievement for online discussion assessment although there is no significant impact on students’ overall satisfactory levels toward the courses. Implications from the results suggest a need to design and integrate effective online discussion platform to engage students and promote social learning in HyFlex learning environments.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.191
Pages: 191-198
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