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'gender' Search Results



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The aim of this study was to investigate the VMLSE perception levels of eighth grade students and differentiations based on variables of gender, state of success, final grade and ability to relate mathematical concepts to daily life and examine their views on this issue. The exploratory design of mixed method, which includes both quantitative and qualitative methods, was used in the study. The survey method was used in the quantitative dimension of the study. In qualitative dimension, phenomenological design which is one of the qualitative research designs is used. The data obtained from the quantitative dimension by VMLSE perception scale were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The data obtained from the semi-structured interview form were analyzed by using the content analysis method for the qualitative dimension of the research. As a consequently, there was a significant difference in VMLSE perceptions based on the variables of final grade, finding one’s self successful in the field of mathematics and ability to relate mathematical concepts; however, there was no significant difference based on gender. Additionally, it was found, the students had the idea that having VMLSE perception would affect mathematics success positively. 

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.177
Pages: 165-176
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Three methodological approaches were applied to understand the role of interest and self-efficacy in reading and/or writing in students without and with persisting specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in literacy. For each approach students in grades 4 to 9 completed a survey in which they rated 10 reading items and 10 writing items on a Scale 1 to 5; all items were the same but domain varied. The first approach applied Principal Component Analysis with Varimax Rotation to a sample that varied in specific kinds of literacy achievement. The second approach applied bidirectional multiple regressions in a sample of students with diagnosed SLDs-WL to (a) predict literacy achievement from ratings on interest and self-efficacy survey items; and (b) predict ratings on interest and self-efficacy survey items from literacy achievement. The third approach correlated ratings on the surveys with BOLD activation on an fMRI word reading/spelling task in a brain region associated with approach/avoidance and affect in a sample with diagnosed SLDs-WL. The first approach identified two components for the reading items (each correlated differently with reading skills) and two components for the writing items (each correlated differently with writing skills), but the components were not the same for both domains. Multiple regressions supported predicting interest and self-efficacy ratings from current reading achievement, rather than predicting reading achievement from interest and self-efficacy ratings, but also bidirectional relationships between interest or self-efficacy in writing and writing achievement.  The third approach found negative correlations with amygdala connectivity for 2 reading items, but 5 positive and 2 negative correlations with amygdala connectivity for writing items; negative correlations may reflect avoidance and positive correlations approach. Collectively results show the relevance and domain-specificity of interest and self-efficacy in reading and writing for students with persisting SLDs in literacy.

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10.12973/ijem.3.1.41
Pages: 41 - 64
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Altruism and Popularity

altruism popularity evolutionary psychology social psychology

Eda Egilmez , Janett Naylor-Tincknell


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Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and determined by group members. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, cooperating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could affect individuals' popularity. Altruism has been studied in different disciplines with the general definition of cooperative behavior that has a cost to the actor with a benefit to the receiver. The common theme in all perspectives is that there is an inevitable cost for the actor with a benefit to the receiver. During the current research, surveys and vignettes were used to collect data. Participants were recruited through an online site, and were compensated for their time and participation via payment of money. As a result of the research, it was observed that helpful behaviors were highly related to the items of empathy, likeability, and popularity. Findings suggest that when gratefulness and helpful behaviors are present, individuals are rated higher in several positive qualities. The unique finding of the study is that both gratefulness and altruism are highly effective resources in interpersonal relations. Purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between altruistic behaviors that are towards friends and popularity by the endorsement of aforementioned hypotheses and theories.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.3.2.65
Pages: 65-74
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The purpose of this research is to assess the sports and socialization of the students studying in different sports branches in Gumushane University. “Socialization- Sports and Socialization Scale” developed by Sahan was used in this research. A total of 742 students composed of 316 females and 426 males studying in Gumushane University participated in this survey modelled research. Data obtained were evaluated in SPSS package program. Reliability coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.896. T-Test, Kruskall Wallis and Anova were used in statistical assessment of data. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation analysis was used to determine whether there was a significant relation between socialization and sports-socialization scores and the causal relations between two variables were tested with simple linear regression analysis. The study was analyzed in terms of certain variables and it was concluded that the variables of gender, age, place of residence and type of sports done by the participants didn’t make a difference on sports-socialization and socialization scores. It is also observed that there is a positive and significant relation between the variables of socialization and sports-socialization (r= .624, p<.01). In other words, it can be stated that the higher the socialization scores of the participants are, the higher their sports-socialization scores become, accordingly.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.2.95
Pages: 95-100
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606
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780
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2

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The intention of this study was to make a positive contribution to the scant literature on cyberbullying at the post-secondary level. Participants were 187 undergraduate students matriculated at a large U.S. Northeastern metropolitan Roman Catholic university. The focus of the study was on the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration at the university. Eight students (4.3%) indicated that they were victims of cyberbullying at the university level; a total of 14 (7.5%) students acknowledged having participated in bullying at that level. A significant finding had to do with the comfort level of students in reporting cyberbullying. A comparison of the results of our study to those of the only other study of cyberbullying conducted at an institution of higher learning with the same religious affiliation revealed similar results.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.2.101
Pages: 101-107
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1605
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1477
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8

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The aim of this study investigate to the reasons why the usage of Social Network Sites (SNS) makes users happy. To this end, the study was conducted with as a qualitative research method. The phenomenological design, which is a qualitative research method, was utilized for determining why SNS usage cause happiness and having a better to understand of how SNS users describe SNSs and what they feel about it. The study group was composed of 137 university students (60 males and 77 females) attending the Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Literature, and Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at a university in the southwestern of Turkey. A structured, open-ended interview was used as the data collection instrument. The contributors were asked the question “Why does SNS usage cause happiness?” and their answers were retrieved. The answers were encoded and entered to the NVivo software to conduct analyses. Based on the most frequent answers of the participants, three different experts were consulted and seven themes were created accordingly. These seven themes include Need for Stroke, Self-Concealment, Ease of Interaction, Ease of Accessing and Disseminating Information, Ease of Shopping, Leisure Activity, and Fear of Missing Out. Subcategories were also created for these seven themes. It was concluded that the theme of FoMO is nourished by all other themes.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.3.109
Pages: 109-124
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This pilot study focuses on the impact of academic conferences from a gender-based perspective. What motivates faculty members to attend conferences? Which conferences do they choose? Can differences be found between men and women in their attitude to the effect of the conference and its contribution to their academic work, in light of many studies on the significance women attach to the value of family and its prioritization over their career? The study dealt with a case study of one university in Israel. Ninety four academic faculty members from a variety of departments completed a questionnaire, including 60.9% women and 39.1% men. The main finding is that, among both men and women, academic conferences are perceived as contributing to their professional development. Faculty members addressed the contribution of conferences to their professional development. Findings showed that professional focusing during conferences results in publications and develops interest in the conference – and not vice versa, i.e., it is not interest in the conference that leads to publications. It was also found that the size of the conference predicts the significance of the focus on professional aspects. From a gender perspective, women prefer small conferences. In addition, for women, although they prefer small conferences they attach significance to collaborations that lead to professional focusing on their fields of research. Women appear to bring their "family-oriented patterns" to their work, explaining their inclination to small and more intimate conferences. The research findings might have an impact on the consideration given to planning academic conferences in order to reach the academic outcomes expected by faculty members who perceive conferences as an essential platform for their professional development.  

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10.12973/ijem.4.1.45
Pages: 45-52
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788
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Do Leadership Styles Influence Organizational Health? A Study in Educational Organizations

school principals leadership styles organizational health

Mustafa Toprak , Bulent Inandi , Ahmet Levent Colak


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This research aims to investigate the effect of leadership styles of school principals on organizational health. Causal-comparative research model was used to analyze the relationships between leadership types and organizational health. For data collection, a Likert type Multifactor Leadership scale questionnaire and Organizational Health scale were administered to 151 teachers working primary and secondary schools in Osmaniye city. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis method. Findings of this study indicated significant relationships between school principals' leadership styles and health of schools, that leadership style of school leaders influence organizational health level of a school. Transformational leadership style was also found out to be closely related to a healthy school environment while transactional leadership style is negatively correlated with organizational health. Individual consideration, inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and intellectual stimulation sub-dimensions are found to effective in the formation of organizational health. In the light of the findings, some recommendations were also presented.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.1.1.19
Pages: 19-26
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1540
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The aim of this study is to understand the mediation effects of teachers’ depression levels on the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. The study group in this research consists of 163 teachers working at Gaziantep schools during 2013-2014 academic year. Since the research aims to analyze mediation effect of teachers’ depression levels on the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, the research design employed in this study is relational scanning model. Maslach’s Burnout Scale, Emotional Labor Scale and Depression Scale were used as data collection tools. Regression analysis of the effect of emotional labor on burnout show that, after depression level is added to the model, the effect of emotional intelligence on burnout decreases which indicates that the depression level is a mediator variable in this relationship. Results of analysis regarding mediation effect of depression levels on the relationship between teachers’ emotional labor and burnout also illustrate that depression levels are partial mediator in this relationship. Within that context, it is recommended that activities that could decrease teachers’ depression levels at schools should be organized by school administrators. Some other recommendations are presented based on findings.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.1.1.1
Pages: 1-8
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707
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1768
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This study mainly aims to determine the effect of the layered curriculum on the 6th grade students’ learning styles in science lesson. The study group consists of students in the 6/A and 6/D at Fevzi Cakmak Secondary School in the city center of Siirt-Turkey in the academic year of 2015-2016. “Learning Styles Inventory” developed by Kolb and translated into Turkish by Askar and Akkoyunlu, diaries of students and semi-structured interview form developed by researchers and examination of the documents were used as data collection tools. As for data analysis, percent (%) and chi-square techniques were used to determine the learning styles of students, but in the analysis of students’ opinions the descriptive analysis was used. During the study, students were also asked to express their experiences and considerations about learning activities via a diary. The thoughts and feelings reflected in the diaries of students were directly quoted in findings. As a result of the analysis, in pre-test results of the students in the experimental group exposed to the layered curriculum, a significant difference was found in terms of gender; however, no significant difference was found in their post-test results.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.3.141
Pages: 141-152
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542
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854
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In this study, the relationship between high school students' test anxiety, academic procrastination behaviours, family attitudes and academic achievements were examined; the predicting of test anxiety, academic procrastination and family attitudes on the academic achievement was also investigated. The participants of the study were composed of 496 high school students. The end-of-term grade average of the students was defined as the criterion of their academic achievements. The students' test anxiety was measured by the Revised Test Anxiety Scale and the academic procrastination behaviours by the Academic Procrastination Scale. The family attitudes were measured by determining the frequency of the activities that support the academic achievement of the students. Data were analysed by correlation and regression methods. The findings indicate that there was a negative correlation between “achievement score” and “anxiety”, “test irrelevant thinking” and “academic procrastination” while there was a positive correlation between “achievement score” and “family attitude”. The findings also revealed that “tension”, “bodily symptoms” and “family attitude” significantly predicted the “end-of-term grade average” positively, while “worry”, “test irrelevant thinking” and “academic procrastination” significantly predicted the “achievement score” negatively. The findings were discussed in the light of literature along with the suggestions for further studies.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.4.219
Pages: 219-226
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1124
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1113
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The aim of this research is to investigate ability of sixth grade students’ comprehension the listened story text. The research is the survey type of quantitative research methods. The population of the study consisted of the sixth grade students of the middle schools in the city center of Yozgat, Turkey in the 2018-2019 academic years. A simple random cluster sampling method was used in the selection of the sample. A total of 369 sixth grade students are sample. As a data collection, a story text entitled “Hero of the Town” was used. Data were collected in October 2018. SPSS 21 program was used to analyze the data. The level of listening comprehension the sixth grade students to the story text is 77.46%. It is seen that the sixth grade girl students’ listening comprehension are better than boy students. The girls’ listening comprehension is higher than boys’ %8. 

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.35
Pages: 35-42
cloud_download 4564
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3

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This research was conducted to investigate the predictive role of homophobia and unconditional self-acceptance on respect of differences in psychological counselor candidates. Participants were 239 psychological counselor candidates. The Respect of Differences Scale, the Homophobia Scale, and the Unconditional Self-Acceptance Scale were used to collect the data. Path analysis was used to determine the influences of variables on respect of differences. The independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to determine differences between participants in terms of gender and grade. The results of the analysis indicated that homophobia and unconditional self-acceptance are predictors of respect of differences, and place of living and traditionally have an indirect effect on respect of differences. In addition, female participants reported a higher level of respect of differences than male participants. Similarly, first year college students reported a higher level of respect of differences than fourth year college students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.59
Pages: 59-70
cloud_download 479
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479
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855
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2

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The purpose of this study was to investigate a predictive power of prospective teachers’ self-efficacy sources on their teaching self-efficacy and attitude towards the teaching profession. Design of the study was the correlational research. The study was conducted on 315 prospective teachers studying pedagogical formation education in a 2017-18 academic year. Instruments were “Prospective Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Sources Scale”, “Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale” and “Attitude Scale of Teaching Profession”. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and PATH analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that emotional states, mastery experience, and verbal persuasion were significant predictors of prospective teachers’ teaching self-efficacy and attitudes towards teaching profession. 

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.101
Pages: 87-96
cloud_download 1253
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1253
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1338
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13

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This study aims to explore the effect of students’ family socio-economic status, gender, family support, learning motivation and peer relationships and teachers’ equity on the victims of school bullying in Hong Kong. Additionally, the model was analyzed by SEM. The participants in this study were 15 year-old middle school students living in Hong Kong. The data were collected from the PISA 2015 database and the valid number was 4856. The results indicating that family support, peer relationships, and teacher fairness have a negative influence on school bullying. Family support affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Peer relationship affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Teacher fairness affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.111
Pages: 97-107
cloud_download 1044
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1044
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1127
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This research was conducted in order to determine whether math anxiety was effective in the selection of secondary school students. This research, in which the mixed method was adopted, was conducted in a secondary school at Siirt. The participants (157 pupils) were determined by convenient sampling method from the four different classes (two 5th grade and two 8th grade). Math anxiety levels of the students were determined by the Mathematics Anxiety Scale. Sociometry technique was used to determine the informal friends groups in each class. For this purpose, a friend preference form was used. Students' friends preferences were transformed into data matrix and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to form informal friends groups for each class. Math anxiety scores of informal groups were compared with Kruskal Wallis test. Accordingly, there were significant differences between the mathematical scores of the informal groups in the branches of the 5th and 8th grades. This finding was evaluated that mathematics anxiety may be a factor in the selection of friends.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.123
Pages: 109-116
cloud_download 426
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426
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771
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2

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The aim of this study was to investigate the social media addiction of high school students in terms of some variables such as age, class, type of school, gender and daily average internet usage period. Survey method was used in the study. “Social Media Addiction Scale” (SMAS) developed by Tutgun-Unal and “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researcher were used as data collection tools. The data were obtained from a total of 596 students studying in three high schools with different academic achievement level in Kirsehir in Turkey. No significant difference was found in terms of gender variable. When the total scores of high school students on Social Media Addiction Scale are examined, it is determined that the students have “low level of addiction”. In addition, it was found that there was a significant relationship between high school students' daily average internet usage time and social media addiction.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.2.235
Pages: 235-245
cloud_download 7130
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7130
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9

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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between the art interests and critical thinking dispositions of the students who study fine arts education in the faculty of education. The sample of the research consisted of 236 fine arts education students including 123 from the department of painting teaching and 113 from the department of music education. In the research, relational survey method was used. It was found in the research that the art interests of the students were at the level that can be considered as good. In addition, it was noticed that the average scores of critical thinking dispositions of the students were at moderate level. One of the findings obtained from the study was that there was no significant difference between the scores of art interest and critical thinking according to gender. Another finding was that art interests of the students in the music department were significantly higher compared with the scores of the students in the department of art education. In addition, a positive moderate level of relationship was found between the art interest and critical thinking, analyticity, inquisitiveness sub-dimensions; significantly low positive relationship with self-confidence, systematicity, searching truth and cognitive maturity sub-dimensions.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.2.275
Pages: 275-287
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673
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911
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This research examines the English language teachers’ motivations related to the usage of role-playing on English language practice in rural secondary schools in Ecuador. The sample consists of 45 English language teachers who work in public schools located in the rural and urban areas of the province of Manabi. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research approaches is applied to analyze teachers’ motivations about using role-plays in English class and analyze the relationships between teaching motivations and the factors: teachers’ gender and work location. The instruments are (1) Focus group guide to collect participants' voices about the language practice at schools; and the (2) Likert questionnaire created by the research team, titled: Teachers' perceptions about role-play contribution on the foreign language acquisition process. The statistical analysis shows significant relationships between teachers’ perceptions and the factors in gender and work location. It is concluded that English teachers, both female and male from rural and urban locations in Ecuador, are highly motivated to use role-play in secondary schools as a teaching strategy, in spite of the demand of extra time and energy required, because it promotes in teachers and students the collaborative and creative learning; and improves their confidence to express their ideas and feelings using English as a foreign language.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.2.289
Pages: 289-303
cloud_download 1763
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1763
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1391
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6

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The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy, career adaptability, and entrepreneurial intention. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior(TPB), this study adopted the entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale, career adaptability scale and entrepreneurial intention scale to investigate 1039 college students from a university in ShanDong province, China. The results indicated the following: (a) entrepreneurial self-efficacy of college student significantly and positively affected entrepreneurial intention; (b) entrepreneurial self-efficacy of college student significantly and positively affected career adaptability; (c) career adaptability significantly and positively affected entrepreneurial intention; and (d) career adaptability partially mediated the effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention. The results of this study can serve as a reference for universities wishing to implement career education and provide entrepreneurship guidance.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.305
Pages: 305-313
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