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Volume 6 Issue 2 (May 2020)

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Kelley’s Discrimination Index (DI) is a simple and robust, classical non-parametric short-cut to estimate the item discrimination power (IDP) in the practical educational settings. Unlike item–total correlation, DI can reach the ultimate values of +1 and ‒1, and it is stable against the outliers. Because of the computational easiness, DI is specifically suitable for the rough estimation where the sophisticated tools for item analysis such as IRT modelling are not available as is usual, for example, in the classroom testing. Unlike most of the other traditional indices for IDP, DI uses only the extreme cases of the ordered dataset in the estimation. One deficiency of DI is that it suits only for dichotomous datasets. This article generalizes DI to allow polytomous dataset and flexible cut-offs for selecting the extreme cases. A new algorithm based on the concept of the characteristic vector of the item is introduced to compute the generalized DI (GDI). A new visual method for item analysis, the cut-off curve, is introduced based on the procedure called exhaustive splitting.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.237
Pages: 237 - 258
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The study's goal was to examine the correlation between the computer programming self-efficacy and computational thinking skills of gifted and talented students. The capacity of the computer programming self-efficacy of gifted and talented students to predict their computational thinking skills were also examined. The relational screening model has been implemented in the research. The participants of the study were composed of 106 secondary school gifted and talented students studying the Individual Ability Recognition Program (IAR) at the Science and Art Center in the city center. Typical case sampling was applied for the student identification of the participants, 46 are female and 60 are male. Gifted and talented students' computational thinking skills were assessed using the "Computational Thinking Skills Scale” and the computer programming self-efficacy was measured by using the "Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale". Data were analysed by Pearson correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis in statistical software SPSS 22. Research results found that there was a positive and high correlation between the computer programming self-efficacy and computational thinking skills. The gifted and talented students' computer programming self-efficacy demonstrated 31.5% of the total variance in computational thinking skills. This finding supports the claim which is present in the literature that self-efficacy in computer programming is the affective aspect of computational thinking skills. To predict computational thinking skills, it may be recommended to build multiple models for cognitive and affective skills of gifted and talented students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.259
Pages: 259-270
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E-learning pedagogy is used in many health training institutions in Uganda, However, despite the high investment, e-learning adoption is still low. This study aimed at ascertaining the relevance of on-line quality management in improve e-learning adoption in midwifery schools in Uganda. It used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design to ascertain if on-line quality management was significant at improving e-learning adoption and the on-line quality traits which would be implemented by midwifery schools to improve e-learning adoption. Data collection was conducted in two phases, the first entailed quantitative data collection and analysis to determine if on-line quality management was significant to e-learning adoption. The second embraced a qualitative data collection and analysis to ascertain the detailed traits of on-line quality management relevant to e-learning adoption. Linear regression analysis established on-line quality management had influence on e-learning adoption (p=0.000). On-line quality management accounted for 55.5% of the variance in e-learning adoption with a strong positive statistically significant relationship, and its salient traits included; Compact Disc, Read-Only-Memory materials meets the expectation of users, collaborative improvement of on-line quality, Learning Management System meets expectations of users, providing the best on-line experience, e-learning program being described as an excellent on-line learning experience, and guidelines for improving on-line quality. Midwifery schools therefore have to focus on the six most relevant traits of on-line quality management if they are to improve e-learning adoption.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.271
Pages: 271-283
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Inclusive Education and Pedagogical Change: Experiences from the Front Lines

inclusion teacher change pedagogy

Monique Somma , Sheila Bennett


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Many educators hold beliefs that including students, at least to some degree, has academic and social benefits, however, they struggle with fundamental pedagogy. With a global shift from a segregated lens to that of an inclusive lens, special education teachers who once held positive beliefs towards segregated special education are now faced with a new reality of teaching students with disabilities in inclusive classroom settings. This paper highlights the experiences of ten educators who transitioned from teaching in a self-contained class to an inclusive class. Focus group and interview themes indicated that all had experienced a shift in their pedagogy- their overall beliefs and teaching methods- after they taught students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others, and systematic barriers within the education system. Highlights of their change process include the positive performance of students with disabilities, the growth and development of the other students, and their overall pedagogical self-reflection. As a result, a framework, the Inclusive Educators’ Continuum of Change, was developed to highlight the change process and connect this research to the literature on inclusion and teacher change. This diagram can provide teacher educators a framework for discussing pedagogical change. Implications for professional development and teacher training for inclusive practice, as well as maximizing the educator skills in Professional Learning Communities (PLC) and mentorship opportunities will be highlighted.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.285
Pages: 285-295
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A new index of item discrimination power (IDP), dimension-corrected Somers’ D (D2) is proposed. Somers’ D is one of the superior alternatives for item–total- (Rit) and item–rest correlation (Rir) in reflecting the real IDP with items with scales 0/1 and 0/1/2, that is, up to three categories. D also reaches the extreme value +1 and ‒1 correctly while Rit and Rir cannot reach the ultimate values in the real-life testing settings. However, when the item has four categories or more, Somers’ D underestimates IDP more than Pearson correlation. A simple correction to Somers’ D in the polytomous case seems to lead to be effective in item analysis settings.  In the simulation with real-life items, D2 showed very few cases of obvious underestimation and practically no cases of obvious overestimation. With certain restrictions discussed in the article, D2 seems to be a good alternative for these classic estimators not only with dichotomous items but also with the polytomous ones. In general, the magnitudes of the estimates by D2 are higher than those by Rit, Rir, and polychoric correlation and they seem to be close of those of bi- and polyserial correlation coefficients without out-of-range values.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.297
Pages: 297-317
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This paper sought to investigate the mathematics teachers’ reflection on the role of Productive Pedagogies’ framework in festering effective classroom instruction. Two research objectives were used to discuss the reflection of the four mathematic teachers. A qualitative case study was adopted as the design of the study. Classroom observations, Research Journal and Reflective Interviews were organised to collect data for the study, while the narratives approach to data analysis was used to analyse the data collected. From the study, the mathematics teachers were able to gradually adjust to the new framework through effective reflective meetings with their colleagues and with the support of the researcher. They (mathematics teachers) reflected that, the framework helps them developed confidence, positive attitude and interest to their teaching practice. It helped fostered effective collaboration and created an atmosphere of trust between the mathematics teachers and their students. The study also suggested that the pedagogy influence the mathematics teachers to provide and received feedback from their colleagues and from their students. They were also of the view that there was a gradual shift from the traditional teacher centred instruction they are more conversant with to a more student-centred pedagogy. The implication of the study suggests the need to adopt the Productive Pedagogies framework into the Nigerian mathematics classroom to improve mathematics teacher’s classroom instruction.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.319
Pages: 319-335
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The curriculum of an elementary school of Indonesian education currently emphasizes the affective aspects as a result of student learning for the sustainability of national development. This fact encourages teachers the responsibility to create and develop effective learning tools to foster tolerance, nationalism, be communicative and friendly, love peace, and social care. The objective of the study is to analyze the needs of students in elementary schools towards the development of educational comics to foster character development. This study uses qualitative approach. Participants were 120 fifth grade students. A questionnaire was used to collect the data of the study. The data were analyzed using an interactive model. The results of the study revealed that there was an interest of students in comic media as a teaching aid containing local wisdom values for character education. In the aspect of construction, comics are needed that are related to the ideal scope and size of the comics. In the aspect of content required comic material set in a national culture containing local wisdom, presentation of the story with the contents of an illustration of nationalism and social awareness. As for the design aspect and appearance, characterizations of cartoons are needed, involving a variety of colors, fonts of proportional size. The conclusion of this research is the development of educational comics media with local wisdom is needed to fulfill the needs of elementary school students as an effort to foster character.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.337
Pages: 337-343
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796
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The aim of this study was to examine the pre-service teachers’ Web 2.0 rapid content development self-efficacy belief levels and their opinions about Web 2.0 tools. The study was carried out by using “convergent parallel mixed design”. In the academic year of 2019-2020, 254 pre-service teachers voluntarily participated in the quantitative part of the study and 30 pre-service teachers voluntarily participated in the qualitative part. "Web 2.0 Rapid Content Development Self-Efficacy Belief Scale of Pre-Service Teachers" was used as quantitative data collection tool. In order to collect qualitative data, a semi-structured interview form was prepared by the researchers. While the quantitative data obtained from the pre-service teachers were analyzed with the T Test and ANOVA, the qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. As a result of the study, pre-service teachers’ Web 2.0 rapid content development self-efficacy belief levels do not differ significantly in terms of gender variable. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in self-efficacy belief level scores among different departments. Also, the pre-service teachers expressed positive opinions regarding the use of WEB 2.0 tools in the educational environment such as class group formation, presentation preparation and virtual classroom applications.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.345
Pages: 345-354
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Primary School Students’ Attitudes towards Science

science attitude towards science scale primary school student

Hulya Cermik , Aslihan Fenli-Aktan


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This study aims to find out the attitude levels of the fourth grade primary school students towards science and to examine these attitudes according to some variables. The study is designed in descriptive survey model to reveal the present situation.  The data were collected through Attitude towards Science Scale, a three-point Likert scale developed by the researchers. A total of 562 students participated in the study. The findings of the study demonstrate that the students' attitudes towards science, which are based on two dimensions including scientific discovery and scientific curiosity, are positive. The students' attitudes towards science do not differ statistically according to their gender. However, their attitudes towards science show statistically significant differences according to whether the students follow a scientific magazine or not, whether they study at a public or private school, whether their mothers are a teacher or not and the educational level of their parents. It is believed that the results will contribute to raising generations with positive attitudes towards science.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.355
Pages: 355-365
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951
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The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the undergraduate programs implemented in different Foreign Language Departments on the basis of the pre-service teachers’ opinions by using the “Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP)” model. The current research was conducted on 40 pre-service teachers from the German, Arabic, French, and English Language Teaching Departments of the Gazi Education Faculty of Gazi University in the city of Ankara in Turkey in 2017-2018 academic year. The study was designed according to the qualitative research model. In this regard, the study employed the phenomenological method. As the data collection tool, a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used. In the analysis of the collected data, the descriptive analysis method was used. In the study, the context, input, process and product dimensions of foreign language teacher training programs were evaluated on the basis of student opinions. According to the results, the participants found the program sufficient in terms of reading, writing and listening skills but inadequate in terms of speaking skill. It seems that the participating students think that the foreign language teaching programs generally meet their needs but do not adequately meet their need for developing their speaking skill. It can be suggested that the class hours devoted to the development of the speaking skill should be increased. Arrangements such as using computer-based programs and increasing speaking lessons can be made for students to improve their speaking skill.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.367
Pages: 367-380
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636
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2

Scopus
2

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Within the scope of the research, which aims to determine the leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels of the university students who volunteer in sports organizations, it is aimed to analyze the relationship and the differences of certain variables with measurement tools, as well as to examine the relationship and impact between leisure literacy and leisure exercise. In this context, 207 sports organization volunteers who participated in the study participated in the data collection, as well as a demographic information form, as well as the “Leisure Literacy Scale” and “Leisure-Time Exercise Scale" was used. In this study, the internal reliability coefficient for the Leisure literacy scale was .94 and .70 for the leisure exersice questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey (HSD-LSD) test and Pearson Correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings reveal that participants have high leisure literacy (81.25 ± 14.04) and men exhibit more active leisure exercise levels, certain variables change leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels. On the other hand, positive strong relationships between leisure literacy and leisure exercise were determined, and leisure literacy was found to have a positive effect on leisure exercise level. As a result of the research, it can be stated that the volunteer participants who take part in sports organizations and evaluate their leisure time actively, the literacy knowledge, background and action level for their leisure time is an important factor that makes individuals spend their leisure by exercising.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.381
Pages: 381-392
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887
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9

Scopus
5

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The aim of this research is to examine the psychological resilience levels of students studying in the Faculty of Sports Sciences according to some variables. The sample of the study consisted of Sports Sciences Faculty students of Duzce University, and the population consisted of 200 students from the Sports Sciences Faculty selected through a convenience sampling method. An eight-item personal information form developed by the researcher for demographic characteristics and ‘‘Short form of resilience scale’’ to determine resilience levels of participants were used. According to data obtained, while resilience levels, grades, gender, branch, department, age, and income variables of participants did not show a significant difference (p>0,05), it showed a significant difference according to sports age and place of living variables (p<0,05). Besides it was determined that resilience scores of male participants were higher than females, and team athletes had higher scores than individual athletes, lower classes had higher scores than upper classes, sports management students had higher scores than coaching and physical education and sports teaching students, and students who had younger age had higher scores than students who had older age. As a result of research, it was determined that resilience could be differed by class, sports age, residence variables. Also, it was revealed that sports age affects resilience negatively.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.393
Pages: 393-403
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This article proposes that the reader be nourished by avant-garde elements for new educational practices in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The writing is based on an investigation that was carried out with high school students from Puerto Rico. From a qualitative paradigm with a research design in action, it was explored how students in higher grades resolve situations within their environment. Emphasis was placed on how they analyze through situations in context, and how they build knowledge through the search for a possible solution to the problem through the Project Based Learning strategy. The emphasis in treatment was for students to experience a transdisciplinary environment. Their impressions from the study were the revealing focus of how students learn when they are presented with a situation in their environment, taking roles themselves, solving them it through a project. As part of the project they used their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve the situation. Similarly, they learned mathematical concepts that are part of the Trigonometry course and that are measured in the academic achievement tests called PR Goals, previously known as Puerto Rican Academic Achievement Tests (PPAA).

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.405
Pages: 405-421
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846

Through the Looking Glass: Lesson Study in a Center School

lesson study professional development collaboration school culture significant disabilities pedagogy low expectations

Khalid Abu-Alghayth , Phyllis Jones , Daphne Pace-Phillips , Robin Meyers


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This article examined the role of Lesson Study in a center school located in the southeastern United States through an analysis of a narrative by the school principal. This methodology allowed a level of reflexivity across the research team, who appreciated hearing about the powerful first-hand enactment of the initiative. The paper begins with an analysis of Lesson Study, particularly in special education, and the key tenets of Lesson Study followed by a narrative account of the principal. Subsequent to her story, we explored lessons learned in relation to implementing a system change in a school, namely Lesson Study. We learned that a deeper understanding of school culture, sustaining professional development, and collaborative practice, were significant factors enabling the principal and teachers at the center school to embrace, plan, and implement a successful Lesson Study for learners with significant disabilities. In addition, we learned that Lesson Study plays an important role in teacher and student engagement in teaching and learning at the center school and supports teachers to design lessons that are efficacious in meeting the individual needs and higher expectations of students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.423
Pages: 423-433
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325
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This study aimed to investigate whether Thai high school students’ perceived teacher support could enhance their reading ability through self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. The theoretical foundation of this study included the theory of social-motivational processes and social cognitive theory. Structural equation modeling was used for analysis and validation. The student questionnaire from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 survey questions regarding teacher support, sense of school belonging, self-efficacy, and reading ability. The sample consisted of the data collected from the Thai students in the PISA2018 survey, with an effective sample size totaling 7968. The research results of the overall model showed that the perceived teacher support of Thai high school students’ had no direct effect on their reading ability, but their perceived teacher support had an indirect effect on reading ability through their self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. From the results can be seen that high school teachers in Thailand, in supporting and encouraging their students in learning, must simultaneously develop their perceived self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. Only thus can there be obvious help to their students’ reading ability.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.435
Pages: 435-446
cloud_download 580
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Trust Perception from the Eyes of Children

trust family value value education

Huseyin Mertol , Mevlut Gunduz


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One adds meaning into his/her own life thanks to several values (reliance, respect, tolerance, benevolence, responsibility, justice, etc.). While the foundation of these values is laid at early ages, they might undergo several changes thanks to life experiences. Thus, the perceptions of the interviewee regarding that value are to be taken into consideration while teaching values. This study is assumed to raise awareness and to lead similar other studies. This study is in the form of a research article. The purpose of this qualitative research is to find out the views and opinions of students on trust values, taught in social sciences courses. In the research, the case study method was applied. The research was conducted in Zubeyde Hanim Primary School in Isparta, in the 2017-2018 academic year towards the end of the second semester on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd graders. Students differ in parents' education level, gender and age. In the study, data were collected by a semi-structured interview form. Four experts’ opinions were consulted to ensure the reliability of the study. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and content analysis methods. According to the findings obtained, it is observed that students differ in trust values, desired to be acquired in social sciences courses, depending on grade level and gender. We may state the fact that the interaction of the child with his/her environment has been affecting the value of reliance since very early ages and that the meaning added into reliance might differ as the child gets older.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.447
Pages: 447-454
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279
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2

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Citizenship is an act of being the ideal member of a society that “maintains and adapts to the culture of this society”, besides having a legal status with the duties and rights that the state imposes on the individual. This study aims to determine the citizenship perceptions of primary school teacher candidates and their ideal citizenship narratives.  The study was carried out according to the mixed research design. Three different measurement tools were used in the research and content analysis method was used for the analysis of data. According to the findings of the study, it was concluded that teacher candidates' perceptions of citizenship and ideal citizenship are similar. Accordingly, it was determined that they participated in the items related to traditional citizenship in the scales, and their perceptions of active/social citizenship were relatively low. It was also determined that all of the teacher candidates mentioned the courses they took during the university process in the differentiation of their ideal citizenship perceptions, and the ideal citizenship narratives were built on traditional citizenship as well as the perceptions of citizenship of the pre-service teachers.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.455
Pages: 455-470
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389
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572
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2

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This study investigated the influence of teachers’ classroom management on pupils’ motivation for learning and academic achievement in Kwara State. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The population was all primary teachers and pupils in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State. The sample size was 250 teachers and all pupils in their classrooms. One research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The instruments used to collect data were researchers’ developed instruments titled ‘Teachers’ Classroom Management Style Observation Scale (TCMOS) and Pupils’ Motivation for Learning Rating Scale (PMLRS) with reliability coefficients of 0.82 and 0.86 respectively. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that there was significant influence of classroom management styles on pupils motivation for learning (F(1,248) = 121.155, p < 0.05) and their academic achievement (F(1,248) = 28.947, p < 0.05). It was therefore recommended that teachers should be encouraged to adopt appropriate classroom management to motivate pupils to learn for improved academic achievement. Also, courses on classroom management and leadership should be integrated into the teacher training curriculum while regular retraining of in-service teachers should be encouraged.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.471
Pages: 471-480
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Humans have had to immigrate from one country to another throughout the history because of economic problems, warfare, safety, etc. Warfare and migration definitely bring about traumatic incidents for all humanity. However, they are much more destructive for children. The current study aims to review the warfare-and-migration-themed drawings of the Syrian and Palestinian children living in Turkey as refugees in comparison to the Turkish children’s drawings. A case study design was employed as a qualitative methodology. 19 Syrian, 6 Palestinian and 25 Turkish children aged between 6-10 years studying in various primary schools in City of Istanbul made up the study sample. Children were asked to draw pictures of warfare and migration, observed and interviewed for data collection. Content analysis was used to determine the themes present in the qualitative data. The themes identified in the drawings were discussed referring to the literature and recommendations were made.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.481
Pages: 481-495
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