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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 6 Issue 1 (February 2020)

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In a situation where life is insecure and the future seems to hang by a thread, motivating students to learn a second language that has no immediate need in their daily lives could be challenging. This article explores the motivation to learn English as a second language of students and the use of motivational strategies of English teachers in one state of Myanmar, which has undergone civil wars for more than seventy years. Sequential explanatory mixed-method research was employed to investigate this complex phenomenon. Questionnaires, classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. A pleasantly surprised finding showed that the students could still remain a certain level of motivation to learn English amidst great hardship and fear in everyday life. As for the teachers’ motivational strategies, most that were observed and reported did not tend to support students’ autonomy. The findings lend support to previous studies on the effects of unstable sociopolitical situations on students and teachers and highlight the needs for effective teacher trainings for pre-service and in-service teachers in such areas.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.1
Pages: 1-11
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This study aims at investigating the perceptions of the faculty members of the University of Jordan towards the use of The Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the educational process and their suggestions to improve them, the study followed the descriptive / analytical approach. The sample consisted of (115) teachers from the faculty members of the University of Jordan, who were chosen intentionally during the second semester 2018/2017. A key tool was developed that was validated and consisted of (70 items). The results showed that the use of MOOCs courses was moderate and positively affect the support of the educational process. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences attributed to the teaching experience, gender and academic rank variables. While the results showed that there are statistically significant differences to the degree of the use of the faculty members of the University of Jordan MOOCs courses in the educational process according to the collage variable. Results related to the second area of proposals for improving the use of MOOCs courses were also high. In the light of the results of the study, the researcher recommended, based on the answers of faculty members, the need to reconsider the importance of using electronic MOOCs courses in the educational process, And spreading a culture of awareness of the importance of using electronic environments in the educational process, to provide tangible financial and technical support for the production and design of MOOCs courses in cooperation with faculty members and the use of experts.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.13
Pages: 13-24
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The purpose of the current study is to investigate middle school students’ self-regulation skills and vocabulary learning strategies in foreign language. The sampling of the current study consists of 990 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade middle school students attending state middle schools in the Mentese district of the city of Mugla, Turkey in school year 2018-2019. As the data collection tools, the Perceived Self-Regulation Scale and the Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Scale were used. In the analysis of the collected data, frequencies, percentages, independent-samples t-test and one-way variance analysis (ANOVA), Post-Hoc Tests (Tukey and Dunnett’s C) and correlation analysis were used. The findings of the present study have revealed that the middle school students’ self-regulation skills and vocabulary learning strategies in foreign language are over the medium value. The middle school students’ self-regulation skills and vocabulary learning strategies in foreign language were found to vary significantly depending on gender, grade level, father-mother attitude and level of interest in English course. A medium, positive and significant correlation was found between the middle school students’ total scores of self-regulation strategies and vocabulary learning strategies in foreign language.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.25
Pages: 25-42
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This research aims to explore the effectiveness of interdisciplinary education program based on multicultural education on the tolerance value, attitude and critical thinking skills of the fourth grade primary school students. Single group pre-posttest design has been used in the study. The research has been carried out with 30 fourth-grade students, at a primary school located within the district of Karakocan in Elazig during the 2015-2016 academic year. Among the participants, 15 are females and 15 are males. The research has employed Tolerance Attitude Scale developed by Kaptan-Yarar, tolerance value and critical thinking story tests and scoring rubrics. Descriptive statistics and dependent samples t-test have been used during data analysis. Research results have revealed a statistically significant difference between critical thinking scoring rubric, tolerance value scoring rubric and tolerance attitude scale pretest-posttest scores in favor of posttest. Based on these results, it can be said that the interdisciplinary curriculum developed based on multicultural education improves students' critical thinking skills, tolerance value and attitudes.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.43
Pages: 43-55
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In this research, leisure activity engagement of students with intellectual disabilities was examined. This study aims to compare the engagement of students with intellectual disability in leisure time activities that they chose with the ones that were selected by their teachers. Four students diagnosed with intellectual disability at the age of fifteen participated in this study. While the dependent variable of the study is the students' engagement in the leisure time activities, the independent variables are the students’ and their teachers’ leisure time activity selections. The study was designed according to the alternating treatments model, which is one of the single subject research models. The study has revealed that enabling students to choose the leisure activities is more effective in increasing the engagement of three out of four participants in those activities.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.57
Pages: 57-66
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Two new instruments were created to assess secondary students’ (ages 14-18) spatial learning attitudes and their interest in science and technology, related careers ideas and perceptions about geospatial technologies. These instruments were designed to evaluate the outcomes of a geospatial learning curriculum project. During a two-year period, we explored the use of these instruments during the prototype testing and pilot testing of a series of socio-environmental science investigations. The instruments were implemented with 664 ninth grade urban students from a population traditionally underrepresented in STEM-related fields. Both classical and Rasch analyses were conducted each year to optimize the instruments. The resulting 24-item Student Interest in Science, Technology and Geospatial Technology (STEM-GEO) measure and 9-item Spatial Learning Attitudes (SLA) measure had high internal consistency reliabilities (Cronbach’s Alpha) as well as acceptable Rasch reliabilities. Content validity and construct validity evidence were also summarized and discussed.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.67
Pages: 67-81
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This study aims to identify the effect of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies on self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of secondary school students and whether self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of secondary school students differs according to the variables such as their gender and reading habits. In this correlational survey model study, data were collected from the sample of 380 students of 8th grade by using ‘Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory’ developed by Mokhtari and Reichard and translated into Turkish by Ozturk; and ‘Self-Efficacy Scale in Reading Comprehension’ developed by Epcacan and Demirel were used. The data gathered were evaluated statistically by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with the help of the SPSS program. As the results of the study, Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be statistically and significantly larger in the groups that have a tendency to finish books that they start. Moreover, Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be statistically and significantly larger in the groups that have advanced level of reading habits. Additionally, RSC, SRR and RVC subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be significantly different in favor of female participants. General Reading Strategies, Problem Solving Strategies and Supporting Reading Strategies subscales of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies have a positive effect on Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence scores of the participants. In other words, metacognitive awareness of reading strategies contributes to self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of eighth-grade students.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.83
Pages: 83-98
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This survey study provides a holistic picture of English teachers’ qualification and the status quo of English instruction in secondary school classrooms in four lowest-achieving rural disctricts in Beijing, China. It covers a wide variety of aspects related to language instruction, including teachers’ professional background and credentials, lesson preparation and instructional materials, teachers’ instructional languages, factors that limit English instruction, roles teachers play in classrooms, and classroom instruction on pronunciation and fluency, vocabulary, grammar, and comprehension. Results shows how inequality in resources and the lack of teaching standards and qualifications can negatively impact students, further hindering their academic and professional opportunities. The findings provide valuable information to the teacher preparation and professional development in these districts and hopefully bring attention to the Department of Education in China about the educational needs of the low achieving rural districts in Beijing.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.99
Pages: 99-112
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The flipped classroom model is an educational model in which students study at their homes and reinforce their knowledge in the classroom with exercises and activities. This model is currently being used by many Turkish schools, especially the ones that give information technologies education. In this study, it is aimed to understand the learning experience by using this model in history lessons in higher education. For research purposes, 5 weeks long program was modified according to the Flipped Classroom (FC) model. This program was implemented and the views and opinions of the participants were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire. The study group is comprised of students that took Ataturk’s Principles and the History of the Turkish Revolution (APHTR) Course during the 2016-2017 fall period at Gazi University in Turkey. Phenomenological analysis was used for data analysis. The results show that the most of the participants see many opportunities in this model. These include the permanent learning, entertaining lessons, interaction, functionality, and high motivation. But the model also poses challenges. Those challenges are problems regarding the long educational videos, wrong content, technical problems, and activities. The participants recommended videos to include more animation and to be shorter, and activities to be improved.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.113
Pages: 113-121
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In order to create a healthy social structure, there should exist common values and these values need to be transferred to next generations. In this transfer process, education plays a vital role in transferring values in society. Values are personal, moral and social emotions which help a human and a society survive. Being a society-oriented course, social studies has an important place in transferring values. The primary aim of the social studies course in our country is to raise good citizens. One of the duties of educational institutions, which intend to have students acquire behaviors aiming for the wellbeing and beauty of the society, is to give values education. One of the values included in the social studies course teaching program is the value of responsibility in a society. In this study, the 5th grade students' views of the value of responsibility were examined. A total of fifteen students, six male and nine female, participated in the study. In the study, the data collected via the semi-structured interview technique was analyzed according to qualitative research methods. According to the results obtained via analyzing the answers given by the 5th grade students participating in the study, it can be stated that the students had the value of responsibility.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.123
Pages: 123-133
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The aim of this study was to investigate the digital literacy skills and metaphorical perceptions of teacher candidates. The mixed approach has been used in the analysis. The quantitative dimension of the study consists of the "Digital Literacy Scale" scores collected from the teacher candidates, and the qualitative component is made up of the metaphors they have developed about the definition of digital literacy. The study was carried out with 297 prospective teachers who are pursuing their education at the Faculty of Education in Turkey. When the results of the study were analyzed, it was found that there was no significant difference between the digital literacy scores of the teacher candidates and the departments in which they were trained, but there was a significant difference in the grade and device ownership variables. The definitions were reached as a result of the study of the metaphors that were grouped under the headings "vitality," "integrity," "guidance," "complexity", and "eternity."

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.135
Pages: 135-145
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The article provides an analysis of the literature on interactive cognitive strategies. The aim of the study is to examine the pedagogical potential of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher. The research used theoretical and empirical methods: analysis of theoretical sources, analysis and generalization of the experience of scientific and methodological developments, training of students of a pedagogical institution. The problem of developing scientific and methodological support for the use of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher is being updated. A generalization of the obtained results indicates that the use of interactive cognitive strategies positively affects the formation of the multilingual personality of the future teacher. The research was supported by within the framework of the project on research on priority directions of scientific activity of the universities-partners in networking (South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute) on the topic of “Linguodidactic foundations of the intercultural communicative competence formation of a future teacher”.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.147
Pages: 147-152
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455
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774
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Purpose of this research is to determine the perception of value of national boxers who study in physical education and sports department in universities. The research was evaluated with semi-structured interview method which is one of the qualitative research designs. The research group consisted of 11 national boxers studying at Gazi University Faculty of Sport Sciences, Firat University Faculty of Sport Sciences, Selcuk University Faculty of Sport Sciences and Mustafa Kemal University School of Physical Education and Sports in 2016-2017 academic year. Data were accessed through the Personal Information Form (4 questions) and Semi-Structured Interview Form (3 questions) prepared by the researchers. In the analysis of the data, content analysis method was utilized. As a result, national boxers who received sports science education at universities had value perceptions such as discipline, gentlemanship, self-confidence, respect, cooperation, responsibility, empathy, health, ambition, systematic work, tolerance and protection from bad habits and they also do not tolerate discrimination, violence and doping.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.153
Pages: 153-160
cloud_download 760
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760
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1070
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This study aimed to develop an instructional design that focuses on programming teaching for gifted and talented students and to investigate its effects on the teaching process. During the development of the instructional design; the steps of Morrison, Ross and Kemp Instructional Design Model were followed. Embedded experimental design, one of the mixed-method research designs, was used in the modeling of the study. The participants consisted of students studying at the Science and Art Center (BILSEM) (experimental group: 13 girls and 12 boys, control group: 10 girls and 15 boys). While the instructional design developed by the researchers was applied to the gifted and talented students in the experimental group, the standard activities used in Information Technologies and Software Courses at BILSEM were applied to the gifted and talented students in the control group. “Computational Thinking Scale (CTS)”, “Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TCTT-Figural)” and “Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale (CPSES)” were used to collect the data of the quantitative phase of the study. Qualitative data were gathered by using interview form, observation forms, and design thinking rubric. Two-Factor ANOVA Test, Bonferroni Adjustment Multiple Comparisons Test, and interaction graphs were used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. The quantitative results of the research showed that the instructional design was effective on students' computational thinking and creative thinking skills, but not on programming self-efficacy. Qualitative findings revealed that the instructional design helped the students learn the computational concepts, use computational applications, and develop computational-perspectives. Also, students improved their design thinking skills to a certain level and expressed that they enjoyed the design thinking process, learned the course content, and experienced some difficulties.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.161
Pages: 161-183
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STEM education is a pedagogical philosophy which aims to draw the interrelationship between science, technology, engineering and mathematics to solve complex problems in real life situations. In order to use STEM education to foster students’ learning, the researchers designed STEM activities for middle school students related to the concept of force and motion in three different approaches: a linear model, a jigsaw learning and a stand-alone engineering design activity. To compare the effectiveness of the three approaches, the researchers analysed students’ reasoning and problem-solving scores gained before and after doing the activities. The result showed students participating in the linear model and in the jigsaw learning significantly outperformed those in the stand-alone engineering design activity. In addition, when comparing conceptual development between those attending the linear model and jigsaw learning, the result showed that the former significantly outperformed the latter. It is therefore suggested that to maximise the effectiveness of STEM activities in promoting conceptual understanding as well as reasoning and problem-solving skills, teachers should adopt the linear model. However, when instructional time is limited, the jigsaw learning can be considered as an alternative approach. The stand-alone engineering design activity although can promote students’ enthusiasm to learn, it may not sufficiently lead to the development of reasoning and problem-solving skills as expected.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.185
Pages: 185-198
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An Effective Method in Improving Social Skills: Literature Circles

literature circles social skills elementary school

Birsen Dogan , Dudu Kaya-Tosun


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This study was carried out to determine the effect of literature circles on the social skills of fourth-grade elementary school students. To this end, the study was designed as a quasi-experimental study and carried out on 74 students in a public elementary school in the Pamukkale district of Denizli, Turkey. The literature circles method was administered to an experimental group for 18 weeks. In the control group, activities continued in line with the current Turkish Course Curriculum. “School Social Behavior Scales” were used as a data collection instrument. A comparison of the scores on the scales revealed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group. The results imply that the literature circles method had a positive influence on the development of the students’ social skills.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.199
Pages: 199-206
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Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient between item g and test score X, known as item–test or item–total correlation (Rit), and item–rest correlation (Rir) are two of the most used classical estimators for item discrimination power (IDP). Both Rit and Rir underestimate IDP caused by the mismatch of the scales of the item and the score. Underestimation of IDP may be drastic when the difficulty level of the item is extreme. Based on a simulation, in a binary dataset, a good alternative for Rit and Rir could be the Somers’ D: it reaches the ultimate values +1 and –1, it underestimates IDP remarkably less than Rit and Rir, and, being a robust statistic, it is more stable against the changes in the data structure. Somers’ D has, however, one major disadvantage in a polytomous case: it tends to underestimate the magnitude of the association of item and score more than Rit does when the item scale has four categories or more.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.207
Pages: 207‒221
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The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast faculty and graduate students’ perceptions of engaging online courses. This mixed-methods study occurred in a mid-sized state university in northeastern United States. Data from an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that graduate students and faculty perceived similar online course elements in the areas of social and teaching presence as engaging: interpersonal connections, structured learning environments, and variety in course activities and type of technology used. Both believed that poor organization was unengaging. Subtle differences in perception were illuminated by the qualitative analysis. The results have implications for online course pedagogy and research methodology.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.223
Pages: 223-236
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1241
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