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Volume 8 Issue 4 (November 2022)

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This study reviews 60 papers using a Likert scale and published between 2012 – 2021. Screening for literature review uses the PRISMA method. The data analysis technique was carried out through data extraction, then synthesized in a structured manner using the narrative method. To achieve credible research results at the stage of the data collection and data analysis process, a group discussion forum (FGD) was conducted. The findings show that only 10% of studies use a measurement scale with an even answer choice category (4, 6, 8, or 10 choices). In general, (90%) of research uses a measurement instrument that involves a Likert scale with odd response choices (5, 7, 9, or 11) and the most popular researchers use a Likert scale with a total response of 5 points. The use of a rating scale with an odd number of responses of more than five points (especially on a seven-point scale) is the most effective in terms of reliability and validity coefficients, but if the researcher wants to direct respondents to one side, then a scale with an even number of responses (six points) is possible. more suitable. The presence of response bias and central tendency bias can affect the validity and reliability of the use of the Likert scale instrument.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.625
Pages: 625-637
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Scopus
4

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This study aims to understand international students' learning experiences in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) courses in a private Korean university. By using mixed-method research, this study collected two data sources, including 1) an online survey (n=46) and 2) an individual in-depth interview (n=4) at the end of the 2022 Spring semester. The study results are summarized as follows. First, EMI courses could enhance international students' content knowledge development effectively. Second, EMI courses could improve international students' English proficiency in terms of reading and vocabulary ability. Third, international students showed high satisfaction with EMI courses and are willing to take EMI courses continuously. However, the interview analysis showed that it was challenging for a few international students to improve their English speaking ability due to limited opportunities to speak English during graduate-level courses. These study results suggest several recommendations to provide practical EMI courses for teaching diverse international students, including English language learners in higher education.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.639
Pages: 639-645
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Work environments are pivotal to teachers’ professional development. However, effective instruments assessing teachers’ perceived work context are still lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to validate a Work Environments Inventory for Teachers (WEIT) constructed using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Two studies were implemented on two independent samples totaling 696 (232 for Study 1 and 464 for Study 2) schoolteachers in Mainland China. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to cross-validate the WEIT. The external construct validity of the WEIT was estimated through investigating its connection with the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory. Findings indicated that the WEIT is an adequate measure to map the characteristics of work environments for schoolteachers. Limitations are discussed and implications for future studies are suggested.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.647
Pages: 647-654
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The purpose of the study was to identify and categorise the criteria-specified instructional approaches to fostering undergraduates’ cross-cultural skills involving training them in foreign languages and to evaluate their effectiveness and feasibility. It was a systemic review of the effectiveness type. The descriptive content analysis was used as a methodology within the study to analyse the relevant short-listed sources. The triangular assessment method (TAM) was applied by instructors from Ukraine to rate each approach’s/programme/course’s potential effectiveness and/or feasibility for the context of higher education in Ukraine. This review identified potentially effective and feasible approaches/programmes/courses that can be converged to produce more efficient instructional models for fostering undergraduates’ cross-cultural skills. The selected approaches or courses or programmes could be categorised as technology-driven approaches, approaches based on classroom activities or using specific instruction models, psychological effect-driven approaches, and combined or converged approaches. The use of technology-driven approaches seems to be the emerging instructional trend specifically in training students’ cross-cultural skills.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.655
Pages: 655-668
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157
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247
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1

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The study discussed in this paper is a systematic literature review related to the role of dual language programme (DLP) in mathematics education which has been published within the last 5 years. This study was conducted to identify the distribution of DLP studies in terms of year of publication, the study context covered in previous studies, the context of study areas used, focus and trends of past studies, research methods used in previous studies and the role of language in school mathematics education. This review study followed the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) to analyze articles from Scopus and Web of Science. The findings of the study indicate that research trends in the implementation of the DLP on mathematics education for secondary school students showed an increase from 2017 to 2019. Most DLP-related articles are widely developed in the United States and Germany. The findings indicate that previous studies are more interested in studying the implementation of DLP in rural areas. Past studies have also preferred to use the design of either a qualitative study or a quantitative study to be implemented. Questionnaires, tests and interviews are among the research instruments that are often used for a study.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.669
Pages: 669-686
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315
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2

Rethinking the Components of Regulation of Cognition through the Structural Validity of the Meta-Text Test

metacognition performance-based testing regulation of cognition structural validity

Marcio Alexander Castillo-Diaz , Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes , Enio Galinkin Jelihovschi


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The field of studies in metacognition points to some limitations in the way the construct has traditionally been measured and shows a near absence of performance-based tests. The Meta-Text is a performance-based test recently created to assess components of cognition regulation: planning, monitoring, and judgment. This study presents the first evidence on the structural validity of the Meta-Text, by analyzing its dimensionality and reliability in a sample of 655 Honduran university students. Different models were tested, via item confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated that the specific factors of planning and monitoring do not hold empirically. The bifactor model containing the general cognition regulation factor and the judgment-specific factor was evaluated as the best model (CFI = .992; NFI = .963; TLI = .991; RMSEA = .021). The reliability of the factors in this model proved to be acceptable (Ω = .701 & .699). The judgment items were well loaded only by the judgment factor, suggesting that the judgment construct may actually be another component of the metacognitive knowledge dimension but having little role in cognition regulation. The results show initial evidence on the structural validity of the Meta-Text and give rise to information previously unidentified by the field which has conceptual implications for theorizing metacognitive components.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.687
Pages: 687-698
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230
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349
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Scopus
1

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Tests are an integral part of most formal language learning processes, exerting far-reaching effects on many aspects of language learning. Among other things, tests affect language learning motivation (LLM), an element that is fundamental to many learning contexts. However, little attention has been paid to how tests affect LLM and what the pedagogical implications may be. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews with 20 adolescent Arab learners, this study attempts to explore how and when tests can motivate or demotivate language learners. It also examines the main strategies learners deploy to cope with the demotivating experiences associated with test taking. The data suggest that tests have the potential to both motivate and demotivate learners before, during, and after taking a test. Additionally, the results reveal several strategies that learners employ to cope with demotivation. This leads to a discussion regarding pedagogical implications on how to effectively employ tests to increase learners’ motivation and decrease their demotivation.   

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.699
Pages: 699-709
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This study explores Korean pre-service teachers' perceptions, attitudes, and satisfaction with flipped learning courses in a teacher education program. A mixed research method was used to collect the end-of-semester survey (n=62) and individual interview data (n=4). Guided by the four pillars of flipped learning (FL), study results are followed. First, Korean pre-service teachers believed that flipped learning format provided a flexible learning environment where pre-service teachers (PSTs) learn course materials in their own space. This result indicated that their learning happened without the limits of time and space. Second, pre-service teachers showed that their self-directed learning could be enhanced while watching pre-recorded videos before attending the class. Most PSTs agreed that their self-directed learning could be enhanced after participating in the flipped learning courses. Third, pre-service teachers evaluated that the FL course instructor was a professional educator who conveyed the intentional content effectively. Fourth, pre-service teachers were generally satisfied with the FL courses and were willing to take the FL courses again in the future.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.711
Pages: 711-717
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229
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1

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This study aimed to analyze the effect of game-based learning (GBL) through the use of Genially in English as a foreign language (EFL) online instruction. The participants were 61 EFL undergraduate students, who were distributed into an experimental group (32 students), and a control group (29 students). Their ages ranged from 22 to 56 years old, and their English proficiency level was B1, according to the Common European Framework of References (CEFR). The students were enrolled in two pre-intermediate courses that are part of an EFL Teaching program at a private university in southern Ecuador. The courses were delivered in an online remote learning environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study followed a quasi-experimental approach and it took place over a sixteen-week period. The instruments included a diagnostic survey, a pre-test, a post-test, a students’ perceptions survey, and a semi-structured interview. The main findings revealed that Genially games have the potential to enhance EFL learners’ academic performance in online instruction, particularly in aspects related to students’ knowledge of grammar and vocabulary in context. Besides, it was found that according to students’ perceptions, the implementation of games based on their real learning needs increases their motivation, especially when feedback is effectively provided.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.719
Pages: 719-729
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4

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The aim of this study is to capture and analyse perspectives on higher education from the views of five students through in-depth interviews. The students' statements are analyzed in order to gain an understanding of their experiences of developing academic literacies in their university studies. They are regularly visiting the university study workshop for help with their exam assignments. The following questions have been formulated to fulfil the aim of the study: (a) what aspects of studies in higher education do the students express as important, favorable, or unfavorable, for their development of academic literacies? and (b) in what way do the students value the study workshops as an educational tool? The analysis reveals three themes: the importance of explicit support structures, the importance of teachers’ feedback, and the importance of using the students’ pedagogical capital. The results also show that the students highly value the study workshop when they reflect upon the one-to-one feedback, but the support seems to be insufficient both in supporting them to be more independent in their studies and in developing academic literacies from a critical and epistemological point of view.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.731
Pages: 731-741
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Natural Disaster Education in School: A Bibliometric Analysis with a Detailed Future Insight Overview

bibliometric analysis; natural disaster; natural disaster education; natural disaster literacy

Antomi Saregar , Sunyono , Een Yayah Haenilah , Hasan Hariri , Fredi Ganda Putra , Rahma Diani , Misbah , Rofiqul Umam


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In some places of the world, disasters occur virtually every day. If disasters are not properly foreseen, they may result in many fatalities. This research aims to examine the growth and pattern of literature on natural disaster education in schools. This analytical strategy combines quantitative and statistical methods to discover trends, assess quality, and track development. A total of 216 documents were chosen from the 403 documents collected. Following 2015, there was a considerable increase in four-year publications. Authors from the United States contributed to 45 papers with 37% citations and ranked first, followed by authors from Japan (31 documents; 15% citations) and Indonesia (31 documents) with rankings citations below the top 10. Most publications were published in the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (12 docs; Q1 Scimago Journal Rank 1.1 (SJR 1.1)). The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines had the most citations (100; Q1 SJR 3.6) and was ranked first in its discipline. The existing core literature on school education on natural disasters demonstrates that this topic is developing rapidly, but with insufficient international research collaboration. Research cooperation in this area must be strengthened to better the global response to natural disaster mitigation, which should begin in schools worldwide. There is a need to widen the scope of study in this field to include natural disaster preparedness education in the school curriculum, assessments, learning media, disaster response education, and instructional designs. Finally, disaster education in schools must be addressed as soon as possible to contribute to disaster preparedness.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.743
Pages: 743-757
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471
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492
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how higher secondary music school students experience teaching, programs, and educational processes in music schools, which are the shortcomings and what are the suggestions for improving the system. The results show high satisfaction with attending music school related to the purpose of future professional orientation. Students see improvements in choosing more modern teaching topics, greater connection with practice, more time for student creativity, and work on improving teachers’ pedagogical skills. The results of this research could be used to accelerate the introduction of curriculum teaching and the National Curriculum for Art Education as a relevant document in music schools in the Republic of Croatia. Also, regardless of the inertia of the educational system, teachers can plan their teaching according to these results that will reconcile their ideas, methodological and didactic laws, and student expectations to contribute to greater motivation of their students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.759
Pages: 759-767
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216
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255
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1

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The purpose of the study was to identify the - interventions that can be adopted for teaching chemistry disciplines to the graduates majoring in Pharmacy (Mpharm) in Ukraine. The study employed a systematic review methodology and a qualitative approach to synthesising the sources. The triangular assessment method was used to rate the short-listed instructional interventions for feasibility, transferability, and duplicability in the settings of teaching chemistry disciplines to pharmacy graduates in Ukraine. The review found seven eligible publications for the analysis. It was identified that the shortlisted instructional models were technology-mediated and positively affected students’ skills and occupational knowledge. Three out of seven instructional models used chatbots and AI to automate the process of management of students learning activity which suggested that automation of the process of educational content delivery was becoming an emerging trend in instructional design. Having performed the triangular assessment method (TAM) analysis, three instructional models were given preference in terms of their use in medical education settings in Ukraine. These models were as follows: a) PhET simulations-based model, b) the model based on automated delivery of the course using the Smart Sender platform and c) the model based on automation of the Moodle-driven e-course using Dialogflow chatbot.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.769
Pages: 769-781
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266
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4

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3

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This research analyzed the involvement of teachers, parents, and school committees in improving scientific attitudes in science learning using Rasch model analysis. A survey method was used in this quantitative study. Participants in the study were selected using a purposive sample of 174 teachers, parents, and school committees in Sleman and Kebumen Regencies, Indonesia. A questionnaire was used in data collection to determine the involvement of teachers, parents, and school committees in improving scientific attitudes toward science learning. The questionnaires were completed using a Likert scale of 1-4, and the data were then analyzed using the Rasch model. The result showed that all participants were the average logit items (+1.03 logit). The reliability was 0.89, indicating a positive response to improving students' scientific attitudes. The results of the Rasch model analysis suggested that the involvement of parents, teachers, and school committees in improving scientific attitudes differed according to their roles. Each instrument element was analyzed in more detail in the Rasch model. Participants' roles were reflected in the specific involvements of teachers in learning, parents at home with children, and school committees participating in school policy-making.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.783
Pages: 783-794
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349

Knowledge, Skills and Attitude of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers Towards Higher-Order Thinking Skills

exposure higher-order thinking skills teaching

Norhayati Ahmat , Nor Afzalina Azmee , Nurul Huda Mo hamed , Zamzana Zamzamir , Nur Syuhada Zahari , Sabarina Shafie , Nurul Akmal Mohamed , Raja Noor Farah Azura Raja-Ma’amor-Shah


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This research was aimed to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude of pre-service Mathematics teachers in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) towards higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and whether the elements of HOTS were translated into the teaching courses. The research was also designed to analyze the relationship between the pre-service Mathematics teachers’ exposure to HOTS through the teaching courses and their level of knowledge, skills and attitude towards HOTS. The study utilized a quantitative approach by administration of a survey to a simple random sample of 110 pre-service Mathematics teachers from UPSI. A questionnaire with five different parts was used as the research instrument with a reliability value of .979. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics were used to determine the mean scores of the level of knowledge, skills and attitude among the pre-service Mathematics teachers, whereas inferential statistics using Pearson-r correlation was implemented to describe the relationship between the studied variables. The findings demonstrated that the knowledge and skills of pre-service Mathematics teachers towards HOTS were at a moderate level as opposed to their attitude and exposure to HOTS which were found to be at a high level. The data analysis using Pearson correlation illustrated a significant positive relationship with r = .727, r = .757 and r = .667 between the exposure to HOTS through the teaching courses and the level of knowledge, skills and attitude regarding HOTS of pre-service Mathematics teachers at UPSI, respectively. In conclusion, the research here indicates that pre-service Mathematics teachers in general, are positive towards the implementation of HOTS but they are lacking in terms of knowledge and skills. This research is useful in the field of Mathematics education as it can serve as a guidance to further enhance the knowledge, skills and attitudes especially for future Mathematics teachers in implementing HOTS effectively and improving the quality of the teaching program offered by the university indirectly.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.795
Pages: 795-804
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456

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The purpose of this study was to establish the factor structure and dimensionality of the Metacognitive Orientation Learning Environment Scale – Science (MOLES-S) in the Thai context. The metacognitive orientation of a science classroom learning environment is defined as the extent to which psychosocial conditions that are known to enhance students’ metacognition are evident in a specific science classroom. This study builds on earlier work in the research areas of science education, metacognition, and learning environments. A sample of 5418 Thai science students in grades 10 to 12, from 40 schools across Thailand, completed the MOLES-S that had been translated into Thai. Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken and Rasch analysis was used to calibrate the scale and explore its dimensionality. The results suggest that the MOLES-S(T), where (T) represents Thailand, has the same factor structure as the original MOLES-S, is reliable, and can be used with confidence in research into metacognition in Thai high school science classrooms.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.805
Pages: 805-818
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146
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273
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2

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1

Psychometric Properties of Online Adolescent Anger Instrument

adolescent anger expressions exploratory factor analysis online instrument

Nor Shafrin Ahmad , Rozniza Zaharudin , Ahmad Zamri Khairani


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Anger is a topic that requires intervention from teachers, counsellors, psychologists, parents, and all communities. The expressions of anger are subjective and sometimes hard to identify. Thus, anger should be measured more objectively, while the expressions need to be examined closely. The purpose of this study is to provide valid confirmation for development of an online instrument to measure the types of anger expression among adolescents. Data were collected from 935 adolescents from nine schools in northern Malaysia and the theoretical literature search. The data were analysed to provide evidence of construct validity in terms of item factor analysis, reliability estimates, and correlation between the types of anger expressions. Findings were used to develop an online Adolescent Anger Instrument. It measures five types of anger expressions, namely, physical, verbal, intrinsic, extrinsic, and passive. The results showed that the instrument is internally consistent with high evidence of construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis, with varimax rotation, suggested the existence of five distinct types of anger as conceptualised. Meanwhile, the correlation between types of anger expressions indicates the strength of the relationship between them. Discussions on the findings are provided, while suggestions for future research are also described.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.819
Pages: 819-831
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367

The Evaluation of the English Language Teacher Education Program in Turkey

curriculum evaluation efl teacher education program teacher education

Şehnaz Nigar Çelik , Hasan Basri Memduhoğlu


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This study aims to evaluate the English language teacher training program which was put into practice in 2006, according to the views of lecturers and English teachers. This study aims to contribute to the studies on foreign language teaching by presenting an evaluation of teacher education, which is an important dimension of English as a foreign language teaching. The qualitative method was used in the study, which was designed in a descriptive survey model. The population of the research consists of 35 lecturers working at the English Language Teaching Department of different Education Faculties in the 2016-2017 academic year and 11 English teachers working in public schools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education and who have not completed 5 years in the profession. NVIVO-11 program was used in the analysis of the data. The results of the study were compared with the 2018 English teacher education program renewed by the Council of Higher Education. English teachers and lecturers think that the content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and general culture courses in the teacher training program are insufficient. According to English teachers and lecturers the content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and general culture courses in the English language teacher education program are insufficient. Furthermore, English teachers stated that they could not apply what they learned during their training to real-life conditions. Therefore, they propose that the English language teacher training program should be revised considering the current conditions.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.833
Pages: 833-851
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This study aims to investigate the relationship between the science learning skills of primary school teacher candidates and various variables. A correlational survey design was used in the study as a research methodology. With the correlational survey design, the relationships between the science learning skills of the primary school teacher candidates and some variables were examined and their effectiveness in predicting their science learning skills was determined. This study was conducted on 160 teacher candidates in the spring term of the 2019-2020 academic year. As a result of the study, a high level of correlation was found between the science learning skills of the primary school teacher candidates and their self-efficacy belief in science education. In addition, it was found that 38% of science learning skills were explained by attitudes and beliefs. In other words, it was seen that the affective characteristics of pre-service teachers about science significantly affected their science learning skills. In the light of these results, it is recommended to carry out studies in the education process to develop the necessary skills before considering the cognitive competencies of primary school teachers about science. They should also develop positive feelings towards science and gain the understanding that science is not a field of memorization, but a fun field necessary to make sense of the world.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.4.853
Pages: 853-864
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