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likert scale literature review potential bias reliability and validity

Number of Response Options, Reliability, Validity, and Potential Bias in the Use of the Likert Scale Education and Social Science Research: A Literature Review

Imam Kusmaryono , Dyana Wijayanti , Hevy Risqi Maharani

This study reviews 60 papers using a Likert scale and published between 2012 – 2021. Screening for literature review uses the PRISMA method. The.


This study reviews 60 papers using a Likert scale and published between 2012 – 2021. Screening for literature review uses the PRISMA method. The data analysis technique was carried out through data extraction, then synthesized in a structured manner using the narrative method. To achieve credible research results at the stage of the data collection and data analysis process, a group discussion forum (FGD) was conducted. The findings show that only 10% of studies use a measurement scale with an even answer choice category (4, 6, 8, or 10 choices). In general, (90%) of research uses a measurement instrument that involves a Likert scale with odd response choices (5, 7, 9, or 11) and the most popular researchers use a Likert scale with a total response of 5 points. The use of a rating scale with an odd number of responses of more than five points (especially on a seven-point scale) is the most effective in terms of reliability and validity coefficients, but if the researcher wants to direct respondents to one side, then a scale with an even number of responses (six points) is possible. more suitable. The presence of response bias and central tendency bias can affect the validity and reliability of the use of the Likert scale instrument.

Keywords: Likert scale, literature review, potential bias, reliability and validity.

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