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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 9 Issue 1 (February 2023)

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Mathematics learning is essential for children with special needs (CSN). The process of learning mathematics at the CSN can be started from concrete to abstract. During the math learning process, many gestures are produced by CSN. Gestures can direct the individual to take and understand the implied meaning of any movement or facial expression. The problem formulated in this study is how the CSN gesture in learning mathematics and aims to describe the gesture produced by CSN during the mathematics study. The subject in this study was the CSN with an autistic category. Research is conducted by observing the mathematical learning process. This research uses a qualitative approach. Data is collected with an observation technique using an audio-visual camera and is subsequently analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the fundamental characteristics of CSN in math learning could be seen from the gesture. Each gesture contains verbal meaning and can represent how they think they are in understanding mathematical problems. Another characteristic is indicated by repeated actions (gesture pointing repeatedly). This condition indicates the special attention and confidence of CSN toward the object being observed.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.1
Pages: 1-11
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Gamification in education refers to the application of game design elements and game principles in teaching with the goal of increasing students’ motivation and engagement, which contributes to more successful achievement of learning outcomes. Gamification can be used in education at different levels, from primary and secondary schools to universities and adult education. An analysis of the literature on the use of gamification in education has shown that it is more common in university education and less common in primary and secondary schools. Nonetheless, experience shows that games and numerous digital tools are successfully used in schools for the purpose of gamification, although this is generally not supported by the relevant research published in the papers. The research presented in this paper represents a systematic review of the literature on relevant research on the use of gamification in primary and secondary schools to explore the field and make recommendations for future research. The conclusion is that research on gamification should continue to suggest appropriate pedagogical and technological frameworks which would facilitate the use of gamification in schools by teachers.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.13
Pages: 13-27
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Online game addiction and psychological distress are two continuously developing problems in the Philippines, with Filipinos aged 18 to 24 being the second largest age group to overuse interactive online-related games. This sequential explanatory mixed method study aimed to assess the young adults’ gaming addiction and perceived psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify the other factors contributing to the respondents’ frequent engagement in online interactive games, which served as a basis for a preventive intervention program. The researcher administered the survey questionnaires of the Gaming Addiction Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 to 399 young adults aged 18–24 and a semi-structured interview guide to 20 addicted and non-addicted gamers. Key results showed that a small percentage of the respondents experienced polythetic and serious monothetic addiction to interactive online games. In contrast, half of the respondents manifested mild to moderate symptoms of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Major findings also found no significant gender differences in the level of online game addiction and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, and a moderate level of relationship substantiated the association. Further results revealed that the negative compensatory factors were associated with addicted gamers’ frequent engagement with online games, whereas non-addicted gamers were associated with positive, beneficial factors. This phenomenon has hardly ever been the focus of in-depth research, and the results of this study can be used to further refine the conceptualization of “internet gaming disorder” as a mental disorder and develop a more comprehensive treatment method.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.29
Pages: 29-40
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Higher education institutions around the world had to implement an emergency remote education (ERE) modality due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the individual and relational factors that affect the perception of learning in engineering, education, and health students during emergency distance education. Through a quantitative, non-experimental, and correlational study, an online survey was administered to a sample of 929 higher education students regarding their ERE experience. They were surveyed regarding their perceived learning, empathy, classroom interaction, self-regulation of learning, positive agency, student engagement, learning approaches, and use of digital resources. Data was analyzed using quantitative methods, namely correlations, comparisons of means and a linear regression analysis. Education students showed a more positive perception of learning, used a deep learning approach, and rated more positively the empathy shown by their professors and the possibilities for class participation than other students. Engineering students had the lowest scores on perceived learning and on almost all other variables. In general, students with a better perception of learning presented a higher engagement in their studies and a lower use of surface learning approach.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.41
Pages: 41-51
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Graded Response Models on the Curiosity Measurement of Elementary School Students

curiosity measurement elementary school graded response models

Herwin Herwin , Riana Nurhayati , Aprilia Tina Lidyasari , Augusto da Costa


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Curiosity is one of the most important characters for elementary school students. However, the facts in the field show that the measurement model used by the teacher to identify the student's curiosity is not yet available in a standardized manner. This study aims to develop a model for measuring the curiosity of elementary school students using the graded response model (GRM) approach. This research uses quantitative method with descriptive type. The research sample used was 236 elementary school students who were randomly selected. Data were collected using a questionnaire of 16 statement items using a Likert scale approach. The data were analyzed using the response item theory approach with the GRM. The results showed that the model for measuring student curiosity in elementary schools had good location parameters, a good discriminant index, a fairly good information function with a small estimation error. The curiosity measurement model in this study can be used as an alternative for teachers to identify students' curiosity in elementary schools.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.53
Pages: 53-62
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What Constitutes a ‘Classroom Problem’ for Today's Teacher?: An Exploratory Study

critical incidents teacher competencies teacher education programs teacher-student relationship

Sergio Sepúlveda- Vallejos , Carla Muñoz , Claudia Contreras , Manuel Monzalve


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Teachers face situations that are difficult to solve, which affect their practices in the classroom. Teachers´ability to face problematic situations been related to educators' adaptive and metacognitive capacity. This study aimed to contrast the recent literature on classroom problems with reports from Chilean teachers regarding what they mean today as critical situations in the classroom. The major problems with the highest prevalence were categorized based on a literature review. Subsequently, teachers from three educational levels (pre-school, primary and secondary) were asked to relate situations in which they had experienced a crisis in their profession. After a filtering based on the relevance and textual richness present, the stories (n=145) were subjected to a thematic analysis and contrasted with the categories obtained from the reviewed literature. The results show a low proportion of problems associated with learning management in the classroom and, on the other hand, a high proportion of behavioral problems in students focused on situations of aggression towards the teacher. These conclusions are discussed to reconsider the concept of "classroom problem situations" and, based on this, questioning the role of teacher training in the development of skills for the management of authentic problem situations.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.63
Pages: 63-73
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This study focused on teachers' awareness of students' learning situations during distance learning. It took place at the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) - Gabaldon Campus during the academic year 2021-2022. The study employed descriptive-comparative and descriptive-correlational designs. The 249 students were selected using a stratified sampling technique, whereas the 25 teachers were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Findings revealed that teachers are aware of their students' situations. The students believe that they faced learning challenges during distance learning. There is a significant difference between male and female teachers in terms of student learning environment awareness, but no statistically significant difference in the teacher's awareness of the student's learning situation across age groups, service years, and academic rank. There is a significant difference in the learning anxiety of male and female students but not in the learning environment and blended learning readiness. The learning environment and readiness for blended learning do not differ significantly across age groups of students, but anxiety does. A statistically significant difference in student readiness in blended learning was observed based on students' courses but not on the learning environment or anxiety. There is no significant difference in students' learning situations based on family income or parental educational attainment. There was no significant difference in student achievement based on the teachers' level of awareness. Achievement is positively correlated with learning environment and readiness but negatively associated with anxiety. In addition, the study discussed its theoretical and practical implications.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.75
Pages: 75-93
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This research aims to examine the effect of coding education on the analytical thinking skills of gifted students. The participants are 18 students, 11 to 12 years old. An embedded experimental mixed design was used in the research. The data collection was carried out with the Analytical Thinking Skill Scale to determine the difference in the analytical thinking skills of the study group before and after the coding training; the Analytical Thinking Skill Observation Form to determine the analytical thinking skill levels during the implementation process; and the semi-structured interview form to get their opinions on the coding training. The data were analyzed with a pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design, descriptive analysis, and content analysis. The results show that coding education developed the participants' analytical thinking skills. The difference in the analytical thinking skills of the study group was not statistically significant in terms of gender. According to the students' views on the coding education application process, there was an improvement in the sub-dimensions of sorting, classification, comparison, and evaluation in analytical thinking skills; coding education developed problem-solving and thinking skills, was useful, encouraged students to choose a profession, and was entertaining, as well as negative opinions such as being difficult, boring, and requiring a lack of time.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.95
Pages: 95-106
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The purpose of the study is to explore the ways of involving university stakeholders specifically in updating educational services. It combined exploratory and observational research methods which relied on qualitative or quantitative data gathered through the researcher-designed and validated tools which were the empirical and methodological contributions to the previous research. The five most frequent choices that might encourage the stakeholders to donate or invest in an educational institution were as follows: a portfolio of the use of donations, investments, or grants, having a stake in the educational services of more than 7%, having access to budgeting and cost reporting, having a share in the institutions’ profit and being one of the decision-makers. The factors that discouraged investors from investing in education were as follows: distrust of the activity of the educational institutions in terms of addressing the stakeholders’ needs or interests, lack of engagement or cooperation, institutional and government-imposed barriers between them and the institutions, uncertainty concerning the efficiency of the institutions and inefficient use of the resources by the institutions. The initiative was complimentarily perceived by stakeholders in terms of collaboration and investment opportunities. It was also found beneficial by the sampled students.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.107
Pages: 107-122
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Internal and external assessment instruments, such as the Vanuatu Standard Test of Achievements (VANSTA) and the Pacific Island Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (PILNA), reveal that mathematics achievements in the Republic of Vanuatu remain below the minimum standard. This study drew on the constructivist grounded theory approach to explore teachers' perspectives of the learning and teaching processes in mathematics education in the Republic of Vanuatu. Specifically, the focus was on the ‘I do-we do-you do’ approach of teaching, which is common in mathematics education in the country. Teachers' opinions about the current situation of mathematics education and possibilities for improving it were extracted using semi-structured interviews with 22 teachers from two randomly selected urban schools. Based on the constructivist grounded theory analysis, four major interlink themes were found. Overall, the findings show that mathematics achievements in the country can be improved through proven discovery-learning strategies for stimulating students' mathematical thinking in the 21st century, such as the ‘try-understand-apply-mastered’ (TUAM) discovery learning process.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.123
Pages: 123-138
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The definition of creativity among professional mathematicians and the definition of mathematical creativity in the classroom context are significantly different. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ mathematical creativity (i.e., cognitive flexibility) and figure apprehension when solving geometric problems with novel auxiliary features such as straight lines and curved lines. In other words, this study determined if geometry knowledge influenced mathematical creativity (cognitive flexibility) in problem-solving. Grade-12 students participated in the intervention. The high school that is the research topic attempts to equip students with academic abilities and is, except for vocational schools, the most popular form of high school among all other types. Such a school was chosen for the study so that a significant proportion of students in Makassar could be represented. In this study, we discovered a relationship between cognitive flexibility and the geometric ability of pupils while solving problems involving auxiliary lines. This indicates that the usage of auxiliary lines as a reference for developing pupils’ creative thinking skills must be advocated. In addition, good geometric abilities (e.g., visual thinking, geometrical reasoning) will encourage pupils to generate various problem-solving concepts. This finding contributes significantly to future research by focusing on auxiliary lines.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.139
Pages: 139-150
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Effects of Worksheets on Problem-Solving Skills: Meta-Analytic Studies

effect meta-analytic problem-solving skill worksheet

Sri Adi Widodo , Astuti Wijayanti , Muhammad Irfan , Widowati Pusporini , Siti Mariah , Siti Rochmiyati


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The purpose of this study was to compile and statistically analyze the results of research studies that examined students' problem-solving skills in worksheets. The research method used was a meta-analysis. The study search was conducted from 2013 to 2022 in Google Scholar and the Garuda portal databases. The search yielded 40 studies that met the inclusion criteria for extraction from research and development, experimental, and quasi-experimental. From the extracted results, 45 comparisons of data were examined. Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the effect size of the problem-solving worksheet. This study yielded a value of 1.281 for the entire study, indicating that the worksheet had a significant and positive impact on students' problem-solving skills. The results indicate the need to develop worksheets to improve students' problem-solving skills.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.151
Pages: 151-167
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Interdisciplinary teaching and learning is an approach that synthesizes the curricular objectives and methods of two or more disciplines or subjects focusing on a specific topic or issue. While it is being increasingly implemented in universities, at lower levels of education there are still countries where science subjects are taught and learned fragmentarily. To assess the significance of the interdisciplinary approach in primary school biology teaching, the paper aims at an experimental verification of the effectiveness of this method in relation to the quality and retention of student knowledge, compared to the monodisciplinary approach to teaching and learning biology. The paper also describes a scenario for teaching a topic in which biological and geographical contents correlate. The study applied a pedagogical experiment with parallel groups. In total, 180 students attending two primary schools in the city of Novi Sad participated in the experiment and were divided into an experimental and a control group. The findings suggest that the interdisciplinary approach improved the quality and retention of student knowledge. The experimental group was more successful in completing tasks that required comprehension and practical application of knowledge. The study thus emphasizes the need for a professional curriculum development that would enhance the interdisciplinary correlation of various disciplines.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.169
Pages: 169-182
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I use the disability studies framework and autoethnography method in this qualitative research to examine my lived experiences in education and their impact on the disability community. The qualitative research method focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This method is about what people think and why they think so. Disability Studies is an interdisciplinary body of intellectual work that positions disability positively and complexly, interrogating rhetoric that disability is a deficit that experts should remedy. Autoethnography is a research method and methodology which uses the researcher’s personal experience as data to describe, analyze and understand cultural experience. I focus on my disability community membership, professional development, and ways I integrate social justice in teacher education to correct education systems into ones that value disabled people. Using the self-study technique, I review my education journey and identities and how they have shaped me into a teacher educator who believes education leverages us to question happenings and provide solutions. I, therefore, reflect on the entwinement of my scholarship and community outreach and how they are geared towards creating and advancing a local and global pluralistic society that values disabled people. My values of collaboration, innovation, integrity, excellence, access, diversity, equity, equality, and inclusion are best practices that dismantle educational barriers and empower educators and disabled people.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.183
Pages: 183-196
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This study aims to develop a schoolpreneur model appropriate for Malaysia's secondary school environment. The current study surveyed students participating in the Program Tunas Commerce (PROTUNe) and the Young Entrepreneurs Association (PUM) in the states of Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan to accomplish these purposes. A survey-based technique was used to collect data, and 400 students participated. With a cross-sectional research design, this research uses a quantitative research methodology. This research employed exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) for statistical analysis. The study's findings show that six highlighted factors can be incorporated to develop a schoolpreneur model. These factors all significantly affect the schoolpreneur model. A significant correlation of the schoolpreneur model of more than 60% indicates the significance of talent skills, mentors, incubators, individual personality, role models, and family background in the development of the schoolpreneur model. As a result, secondary schools can conduct entrepreneurial activities better due to the development of the schoolpreneur model.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.197
Pages: 197-214
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Considering the fact that learning difficulties are mostly related to academic learning, and students first encounter tasks related with academic learning during the pre-school, it is critical for early intervention that the first symptoms of students with potential learning disability are detected by the pre-school teachers. The aim of this research is to examine knowledge levels of pre-school teachers about the characteristics of learning difficulties that 3–6 years old students, in the pre-school period, may show. With this aim in mind, the development of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” was completed with 471 pre-school teachers and pre-school teacher candidates of the last grade of pre-school education program. The research has been done in the survey model with a quantitative approach. The sample of the study consists of 291 pre-school teachers. The data have been collected by means of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” and analyzed using descriptive statistics techniques. At the end of the research, it has been found that there are no statistically significant differences in knowledge levels of pre-school teachers regarding the cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities in terms of their gender, the program they have graduated from, having taken courses on special education, having taken courses on learning disabilities, the types of institutions they worked at, and their class sizes. It has been found that there are statistically significant differences in their knowledge levels about cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities according to the length of service, teaching students with learning disabilities, having inclusive students in their class, having a relative in need of special education, and teaching students with learning disabilities variables.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.215
Pages: 215-226
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Evaluating the Structural Effect of Family Support and Entrepreneurship Training on Entrepreneurship Intention Among Indonesian University Students

achievement motivation entrepreneurship intention entrepreneurship training family support self-efficacy

Maulana Amirul Adha , Henry Eryanto , Nova Syafira Ariyanti , Akhmad Arif Musadad , Ayatulloh Michael Musyaffi , Agus Wibowo


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This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis techniques, with the aim of testing the structural effect of family support, entrepreneurial training, on entrepreneurial intentions, with self-efficacy and student achievement motivation as mediators. A total of 203 students participated in this study, through a questionnaire distributed online. The SEM analysis was performed using the Amos 24 App. The results showed that the family environment and entrepreneurship training had a direct and indirect effect on entrepreneurial intentions through self-efficacy and student achievement motivation. The model proposed and tested in this study can be a constructive guide for related parties in an effort to promote students' entrepreneurial intentions.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.227
Pages: 227-236
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This research aims to prove and find out the influence of local wisdom-based learning media on the character of students in Indonesia. This research uses a quantitative method with a meta-analysis approach. The research data were analyzed using the 0.8.5 version of JASP software. The eligibility criteria used include: (a) The publications must be searchable in search databases such as Google Scholar, ERIC, DOAJ, Research Gate, and or ScienceDirect; (b) The publications are reputable indexed; (c) The publications must relate to learning media based on local wisdom and student character; (d) The publications must be in the range of 2015 to 2023; (e) The articles are worth (r), (t), or (F); (6) N ≥ 30. The results of the analysis of 30 studies showed that there was a significant effect of learning media on the character of students in Indonesia (z = 9.700; p < .001; 95% CI [.987; 1.487]). This effect is categorized as very strong (rRE = 1.237). This meta-analysis study is the result of accurate, valid, and representative research reviewed because publication bias was not detected. Thus, it can be concluded that learning media based on local wisdom has a big influence on student character.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.237
Pages: 237-248
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Education for sustainable development (ESD) refers to education on the values and behaviors necessary for a sustainable future and society where everyone receives high-quality benefits. In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, convergence thinking is emphasized as a method of ESD. Therefore, this study aims to derive a model for developing open convergence subjects for ESD. The idea for this model was derived by combining the process of establishing a Convergence Department at Rey Juan Carlos University in Spain and the unit activities of Kyoto University in Japan. The challenges of failing to achieve the original goal and purpose of convergence due to emphasizing specific majors were solved by defining requirements for the model. Convergence subjects that meet the requirements are developed by following the order of the proposed model. In the future, a convergence subject pilot model will be applied using the proposed model to present and operate a course development process called “technology and future are seen through the window of currency”.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.249
Pages: 249-259
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Bloom’s Taxonomy Revision-Oriented Learning Activities to Improve Procedural Capabilities and Learning Outcomes

bloom’s taxonomy revision learning outcomes procedural capabilities

Made Aryawan Adijaya , I Wayan Widiana , I Gusti Lanang Agung Parwata , I Gede Wahyu Suwela Antara


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The implementation of learning activities in schools has not provided opportunities or encouragement for students in developing their procedural knowledge. This research aimed to test the effectiveness of developing Bloom’s Taxonomy revision-oriented learning activities to grade IV elementary learners’ procedural knowledge capabilities and learning outcomes. This research used quasi-experiment with a quasi-experimental design which consisted of a posttest-only control design. The population of this study was sixth-grade students of 9 schools with an overall number of 229 students. The sample in the study was 50 students, there were 26 students from the experimental class and 24 students from the control class. A test method with 10 question items was used as a data collection method. The data analysis methods and techniques used were quantitative descriptive analysis and inferential statistical analysis. Then the data were analyzed using the MANOVA test assisted by the IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 program. The hypothesis test results showed a significance value of .000 (Sig<.05). It can be concluded in procedural capabilities and learning outcomes between groups of students there is a significant difference from following learning by implementing Bloom's Taxonomy Revision oriented learning activities with the experimental and control group.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.261
Pages: 261-270
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This study aims to examine the 9th-grade 2018 physics curriculum according to various criteria. A cross-sectional survey model was used. The sample consists of 36 physics teachers working in various high schools in 12 regions of Turkey in the 2022-2023 academic year. The data of the study were collected via the “9th-grade 2018 physics curriculum Evaluation Form”. The data collected via the evaluation form were determined with the multilevel Rasch analysis program. The results of the research revealed that the criteria determined in the evaluation of the 9th-grade physics curriculum differed in terms of strictness and generosity. In addition, the quantitative data analysis revealed that the physics teachers mostly comply with the criteria set in the program while they disapprove of some criteria. The physics teachers reported some deficiencies in the objectives, content, and educational status of the elements included in the program. In this context, it is recommended that the achievements of the 9th-grade 2018 physics curriculum be reviewed in line with the evaluations of the stakeholders related to the subject.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.271
Pages: 271-281
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The purposes of this research are (a) to make an instrument to measure the achievement of project-based digitalpreneurship learning in students; (b) to describe the quality of the project-based digitalpreneurship learning achievement assessment instrument for vocational high school students; (c) to measure the competence and skills. This study employed to research and development as its methodology, using a combination procedure between Oriondo and Antonio and, Mardapi. The development procedure includes three stages: instrument design, instrument testing, and measurement. A total of 795 students who participated in the study at 5 vocational high schools in Yogyakarta's special region served as responders. Data analysis in this development uses the content validity of the formula Aiken V Index, confirmatory factor analysis establishes the construct's validity, and construct reliability. Measurement instrument development. Research findings that (a) the instrument is ready to be used in the measurement; (b) the quality of the project-based digitalpreneruship learning achievement assessment instrument for vocational high school students is well tested. This is evidenced by the validity test which has a high score >.8; The proof of construct validity in this study using CFA > .5; GOF chi-square value with a critical value of df = 289, X2 = 323, p-value with a critical value of .079, RMSEA with a critical value of RMSEA .019 (≤ .08), SMRM with a critical value of SRMR 0.030 (≤ .05), CFI with a critical value of CFI .990 (> .97), and an NFI with a critical value of NFI .989 ( > .90); (c) the measurement results are identified in the process that needs to be improved again regarding the digitalpreneurship skills of vocational high school students.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.283
Pages: 283-295
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