logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
covid 19 higher education internet pandemic remote education

Students' Learning Perception in Engineering, Health and Education During Emergency Remote Education in Chile

Verónica Villarroel , Alvaro González

Higher education institutions around the world had to implement an emergency remote education (ERE) modality due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study .


Higher education institutions around the world had to implement an emergency remote education (ERE) modality due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine the individual and relational factors that affect the perception of learning in engineering, education, and health students during emergency distance education. Through a quantitative, non-experimental, and correlational study, an online survey was administered to a sample of 929 higher education students regarding their ERE experience. They were surveyed regarding their perceived learning, empathy, classroom interaction, self-regulation of learning, positive agency, student engagement, learning approaches, and use of digital resources. Data was analyzed using quantitative methods, namely correlations, comparisons of means and a linear regression analysis. Education students showed a more positive perception of learning, used a deep learning approach, and rated more positively the empathy shown by their professors and the possibilities for class participation than other students. Engineering students had the lowest scores on perceived learning and on almost all other variables. In general, students with a better perception of learning presented a higher engagement in their studies and a lower use of surface learning approach.

Keywords: COVID-19, higher education, internet, pandemic, remote education.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Abbasi, S., Ayoob, T., Malik, A., & Memon, S. I. (2020). Perceptions of students regarding e-learning during Covid-19 at a private medical college: Perceptions of students regarding e-learning. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(COVID19-S4), S57-S61. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2766

Ali, W. (2020). Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: A necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 16-25. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16

Almutairi, F., Ali, N., & Ghuloum, H. (2021). A novel framework for facilitating emergency remote learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Education Studies, 14(5), 121-134. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v14n5p121 

Barrón, H. J., & Llimpe, Y. (2017). Enfoques de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de medicina del primer año de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos [Learning approaches and academic performance in first year medicine students in Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos]. Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, 78(1), 49-54. http://doi.org/10.15381/anales.v78i1.13021

Biggs, J. B., Kember, D., & Leung, D. (2001). The revised two factor study process questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 133-149. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709901158433

Bolaño-Muñoz, O. E. (2020). El constructivismo: Modelo pedagógico para la enseñanza de las matemáticas [Constructivism: Pedagogical model for the teaching of maths]. Revista EDUCARE - UPEL-IPB - Segunda Nueva Etapa 2.0, 24(3), 488–502. https://doi.org/10.46498/reduipb.v24i3.1413

Bruna, D., Pérez Villalobos, M. V., Bustos Navarrete, C. E., & Núñez Pérez, J. C. (2017). Propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Procesos de Autorregulación del aprendizaje en Estudiantes Universitarios Chilenos [Psychometric properties of the Self-regulated Learning Inventory in Chilean university students]. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica, 144(12), 77-91. https://doi.org/10.21865/RIDEP44.2.07

Carolan, C., Davies, C., Crookes, P., McGhee, S., & Roxburgh, M. (2020). COVID-19 disruptive impacts and transformative opportunities in undergraduate Nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 46, Article 102807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2020.102807

Castellanos, M. F. V., Villalobos, M. V. P., Bustos, C., & Lagos, P. S. (2018). Cambios en el concepto aprendizaje de estudiantes de pedagogía: Análisis de disponibilidad léxica y grafos [Changes in the concept of learning in pedagogy students: Analysis of lexic availability and graphos]. Estudios filológicos, (61), 143-173. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0071-17132018000100143

Chatziralli, I., Ventura, C., Touhami, S., Reynolds, R., Nassisi, M., Weinberg, T., Pakzad-Vaezi, K., Anaya, D., Mustapha, M., Plant, A., Yuan, M., & Loewenstein, A. (2021). Transforming ophthalmic education into virtual learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A global perspective. Eye, 35, 1459-1466. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-020-1080-0

Gewin, V. (2020). Five tips for moving teaching online as COVID-19 takes hold. Nature, 580(7802), 295-296. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00896-7

González, G. J., Rincón, I. B., & Rincón, I. D. (2011). Estructura latente y consistencia interna del R-SPQ-2F: Reinterpretando los enfoques de aprendizaje en el EEES [Latent structure and internal consistency of the R-SPQ-2F: Reinterpreting que learning approaches in the EES]. Revista de Investigación Educativa 29(2), 277-293. https://l24.im/BTKFUj

Gutierrez de Blume, A. P. (2021). Autorregulación del aprendizaje: Desenredando la relación entre cognición, metacognición y motivación. Voces y silencios [Self-regulation of learning: Untangling the relationship between cognition, metacognition and motivation. Voices and silences]. Revista Latinoamericana de Educación, 12(1), 81-108. https://doi.org/10.18175/VyS12.1.2021.4

Hamid, R., Sentryo, I., & Hasan, S. (2020). Online learning and its problems in the Covid-19 emergency period. Journal Prima Edukasia, 8(1), 85-94. https://doi.org/10.21831/jpe.v8i1.32165

Heng, K., & Sol, K. (2020). Online learning during COVID-19: Key challenges and suggestions to enhance effectiveness. Cambodian Education Forum. https://l24.im/nR5e

Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, P. (2010). Metodología de la investigación [Research Methodology]. McGraw-Hill.

Herrera Seda, C. (2016). Participación y aprendizaje en estudiantes universitarios [Participation and learning in university students]. Revista RUEDES, 5(7), 39-77. https://bdigital.uncu.edu.ar/8396

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE. https://l24.im/yqN

Kim, J. (2020). Learning and teaching online during Covid-19: Experiences of student teachers in an early childhood education practicum. International Journal of Early Childhood, 52, 145-158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-020-00272-6

Kirshner, J. (2021). COVID-19 as a crucible: The transformation of global educators. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 7(4), 557-570. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.7.4.557

Lassoued, Z., Alhendaui, M., & Bashitialshaaer, R. (2020). An exploratory study of the obstacle for achieving quality in distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Education Sciences, 10(9), 232. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090232

Lobos, K., Cobo-Rendón, R., Bustos, C., Bruna, C., & Arias, N. (2022). Design and study of the psychometric properties of a professors’ expectations of virtual university education questionary. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 8(3), 465-478. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.8.3.465 

López-Angulo, Y., Pérez-Villalobos, M. V., Cobo-Rendón, R. C., & Díaz-Mujica, A. E. (2020). Apoyo social, sexo y área del conocimiento en el rendimiento académico autopercibido de estudiantes universitarios chilenos [Social support, sex and knowledge area in self-perceived academic performance in Chilean university students]. Formación universitaria, 13(3), 11-18. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-50062020000300011

Martínez, J. G., & Medina, A. R. (2019). Enfoques de aprendizaje, autorregulación y autoeficacia y su influencia en el rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios de Psicología [Learning, self-regulation and self-efficacy approaches and their influence in psychology university students’ academic performance]. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 9(2), 95-107. https://bit.ly/3BZkamx

Mavengere, N., Henriksen-Bulmer, J., Passmore, D., Mayes, H., Fakorede, O., Coles, M., & Atfield-Cutts, S. (2021). Applying innovative technologies and practices in the rapid shift to remote learning. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 48(24), 185-195. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.04824 

Méndez, J. (2016). Autoconcepto académico y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera. Análisis comparativo por facultad [Academic self-concept and academic outcomes in students from Universidad de La Frontera. Comparative analysis by faculty]. Revista Investigación en Educación, 16(1), 169-188. https://l24.im/4Y3

Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, limitations and recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36(COVID19-S4), S27-S31. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2785

Muñoz, M., & Blanco, C. (2013). Una taxonomía de las universidades chilenas [A taxonomy of Chilean universities]. Calidad en la Educación, (38), 181-213. https://doi.org/10.31619/caledu.n38.109

Olum, R., Chekwech, G., Wekha, G., Nassozi, D., & Bongomin, F. (2020). Coronavirus disease-2019: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of health care workers at Makerere University Teaching Hospitals, Uganda. Frontiers Public Health, 30(81), Article 181. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00181

Panadero, E., Alonso-Tapia, J., García-Pérez, D., Fraile, J., Galán, J. M. S., & Pardo, R. (2021). Estrategias de aprendizaje profundas: Validación de un modelo situacional y su cuestionario [Strategies of deep learning: Validation of a situational model and its questionnaire]. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 26(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicod.2020.11.003

Pardo, H., & Cobo, C. (2020). Expandir la universidad más allá de la enseñanza remota de emergencia. Ideas hacia un modelo híbrido post pandemia [To expand university beyond emergency remote education. Ideas towards a post-pandemic hybrid model]. Outliers School. https://l24.im/QFoU

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 539-569. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

Rosário, P., Mourao, R., Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Solano, P., & Valle, A. (2007). Eficacia de un programa instruccional para la mejora de procesos y estrategias de aprendizaje en la educación superior [Efficacy of an instructional program for the improvement of learning processes and strategies in higher education]. Psicothema, 19(3), 422- 427. https://l24.im/LEc

Rovai, A., Wighting, M., Baker, J., & Grooms, L. (2008). Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings. Internet and Higher Education, 12(1), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.10.002

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326

Schneider, S., & Council, M. (2021). Distance learning in the era of COVID-19. Archives of Dermatological Research, 313, 389-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-020-02088-9

Soni, V. (2020). Global impact of e-learning during COVID 19. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3630073

Tapal, A., Oren, E., Dar, R., & Eitam, B. (2017). The sense of agency scale: A measure of consciously perceived control over one's mind, body, and the immediate environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1552. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01552

UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. (2020). COVID-19 and higher education: Today and tomorrow; Impact analysis, policy responses and recommendations. UNESDOC Digital Library. https://l24.im/c7Tra

Zhao, Y., Bandyopadhyay, K., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2020). Evaluating complex online technology enabled course delivery: A contextualized view of a decomposed IS success model. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 46, 209-229. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.04609