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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 7 Issue 3 (August 2021)

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In the field of education, globally, teachers are recognised as important contributors in shaping learners’ interaction in a cooperative learning environment through effective lesson planning. There is a plethora of research conducted internally on lesson planning, as a critical instructional competency for good teaching and as a purposeful activity that precedes the delivery of instruction. This study aimed to explore Life Orientation teachers’ lesson planning incorporating a cooperative teaching and learning approach in secondary schools in De Aar, South Africa. The researchers adopted a mixed-methods phenomenological research design. Seven Grade 10 Life Orientation teachers were purposely selected to collect semi-structured interviews data, non-participatory observation, and document analysis. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and supported with the literature review and the theory underpinning this study. This paper suggests an enactment between teachers’ subject and pedagogical content knowledge and instructional material. Lastly, it is also evident that many teachers lack knowledge, insufficient instructional resources, and an understanding of effective lesson planning to implement a cooperative teaching approach.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.373
Pages: 373-386
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This study aimed at investigating the outcomes of the cooperation practices, which were utilized to enhance the quality of work-integrated learning at Nong Khai Technical College. The investigation covered the following three aspects: 1) the changes that had arisen from the development of specified indicators; 2) the learning that occurred, and 3) the body of knowledge, which had been obtained from the practice. A participatory action research methodology was adopted during two semesters. There were 19 teachers and 30 students involved in the project. The results of the study revealed three key features. Firstly, the post-practice evaluation in both the first and the second cycles was higher than in the pre-practice evaluation. Secondly, the researcher, research participants and the college learned from various issues of the practice. This learning included gaining an awareness of the importance of collaborative work, the importance of studying the theoretical perspective in order to enhance the existing knowledge and experiences, and the importance of planning, practice, observation, and reflection in comprehensive work. Finally, the knowledge gained was found to correlate with Kurt Lewin's Force-Field Analysis which consists of the following elements: 1) expected change, 2) driving factors for change, 3) resistance to change, and 4) overcoming resistance.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.387
Pages: 387-400
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Individuals’ engagement with reading and maintaining it depends on personal motivations. Having a multidimensional structure, reading motivation is affected by intrinsic factors. Studies on reading motivation can make a significant contribution to identifying students’ intrinsic motivation profiles closely, encouraging them to read, and increasing their reading engagement. The present study aimed to determine the individual and socioeconomic variables predicting middle school students’ intrinsic reading motivations. Employing the predictive correlational design, the study was carried out with 459 students attending six different public schools in the city of Sanliurfa. The participants were determined by stratified purposeful sampling method. The study data were collected by the Intrinsic Reading Motivation Scale and the Personal Information Form. According to the hierarchical regression analysis results, all the models constructed in the study were significant. All of the variables explained the intrinsic reading motivation with a 22% variance explanation percentage. As a result, it can be said that the change observed in intrinsic reading motivation variance mostly stemmed from reading engagement (ΔR2=.12), family (ΔR2=.07), demographic characteristics (ΔR2=.03), and school (ΔR2=.01), respectively. It can be stated that the predictors of the intrinsic reading motivation determined in this study should be taken into consideration by educators.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.401
Pages: 401-410
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This study aims to produce empirical evidence of the validity and reliability of instrument items for the competency framework of agricultural teaching staff in Malaysian agricultural vocational colleges. The validity and reliability of the framework were analyzed using Rasch Model Measurement assisted by Winsteps 3.72 software. This research instrument contained 116 items, which was distributed to 30 instructors at the Teluk Intan Agricultural Vocational College, Malaysia. The selection of respondents was made by strata random where the researcher makes the strata of the population according to the percentage and then selects randomly based on the desired percentage. Validity analysis of the instrument was done through four functional testings. For reliability and separation of respondents, it was found that the individual reliability value was very good and acceptable. The results of the item polarity analysis detected no negative value (-) in the Point Measure Correlation value. Item matching analysis found that 11 items had to be dropped as they failed to meet the required conditions. From the analysis on local dependence that determines dependent items based on the standardized residual correlation value, it was discovered that the correlation value for the items used was detected; 13 items need attention. The results of the data analysis checking the functionality of the items suggested that some items should be dropped. The omission of these items has provided evidence that the instrument of competence of agricultural instructors is crucial to have a high level of validity and reliability for use in actual studies.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.411
Pages: 411-420
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The early phase is the decisive period for the teachers’ career. Intellectual styles (particularly thinking styles) play a vital role in teachers’ professional development. With the purpose of measuring thinking styles of teachers at the early phase, this study was designed to validate a revised inventory of thinking styles (TSI-R2) for pre-service and early career teachers. A sample of pre-service teachers (n = 248) were invited to join the pilot study and a sample of teachers with one year work experience (n = 252) participated in the main study. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed. The results suggested that with slight modification, TSI-R2 was a reliable and valid instrument to measure thinking styles of pre-service teachers and early career teachers, which has some implications to enhancing teacher education and development.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.421
Pages: 421-432
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Fictional characters give literary works a sense of reality. The actions of fictional characters play a crucial role in children's personality development. Young readers who lack critical reading skills are more likely to incorporate fictional characters into their lives because they have a hard time telling reality from fiction. Therefore, we should determine how children perceive fictional characters and teach them that they are imaginary figures. In this way, we can help them approach those characters' actions from an external and critical perspective. This study adopted a qualitative research design (case study) to investigate secondary school students' perceptions of fictional characters. The sample consisted of 45 secondary school students (28 female and 17 male). Data were collected through interviews and document review techniques. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results showed that participants were more likely to be interested in and identify with characters with appealing personality traits. They had four types of approaches to fictional characters: (1) Wanting to change the storyline depending on what the fictional character goes through, (2) being influenced by them, (3) seeing them as role models, or (4) ignoring them. They wanted to change the storyline, especially when the villain got what he wanted or when the hero or the victim was unhappy, suggesting that they mostly took the protagonist's side (the good guy). While most participants attributed an ontological meaning to anthropomorphic characters, the symbolic meaning became of secondary importance. They were more interested in and identified more with characters with good living conditions and no death experiences.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.433
Pages: 433-446
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This article introduces the concept of the carrying capacity of data (CCD), defined as an integrated, evaluative judgment of the credibility of specific data-based inferences, informed by quantitative and qualitative analyses, leavened by experience. The sequential process of evaluating the CCD is represented schematically by a framework that can guide data analysis and statistical inference, as well as pedagogy. Aspects of each phase are illustrated with examples. A key initial activity in empirical work is data scrutiny, comprising consideration of data provenance and characteristics, as well as data limitations in light of the context and purpose of the study.  Relevant auxiliary information can contribute to evaluating the CCD, as can sensitivity analyses conducted at the modeling stage. It is argued that early courses in statistical methods, and the textbooks they rely on, typically give little emphasis to, or omit entirely, discussion of the importance of data scrutiny in scientific research. This inattention and lack of guided, practical experience leaves students unprepared for the real world of empirical studies. Instructors should both cultivate in their students a true respect for data and engage them in authentic empirical research involving real data, rather than the context-free data to which they are usually exposed.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.447
Pages: 447-463
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An empirical investigation of elementary school teacher candidates on classification activities dealing with animate and inanimate objects in terms of being living or non-living demonstrates that as the size of the objects increases, subjects are more likely to classify them correctly as either being an animal or having living characteristics. Despite a variety of misconceptions having an impact on the results, size magnitude is shown to play a significant role on proper classification. The subjects’ performance on these activities at an advanced stage of their preparation suggests that their factual and procedural knowledge are deficient due to a lack of opportunities for conceptual development of the items tested. The identification of the role of size on the proper classification of objects in the activities bears significantly on the science curricular structure at the elementary school level. As the results of this study indicate, both pre-service elementary school teachers and by extension their prospective students need longer practice dealing with living and non-living classification activities, particularly in tasks where the microscopic features of matter can be investigated so that the proclivity to regard size as the defining characteristic is effectively addressed.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.465
Pages: 465-472
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The article focused on the use of assessment for learning in promoting active learning and learner participation in mathematics. Assessment for learning (AfL) has been found to enhance learning and improve performance. However, teachers’ use of AfL to enhance active learning has not been clearly outlined. This study is part of the broader research study that explored mathematics teachers’ use of AfL to enhance mathematics teaching and learning in primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg. A case study research-type and a qualitative approach were used to collect data from mathematics teachers. Nine teachers were purposefully selected from whom data were collected using semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. The findings revealed that teachers had limited pedagogical knowledge in using AfL to promote active learning in their classrooms. They failed to apply a learner-centred approach that promotes effective learner participation in mathematics classrooms. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers undergo ongoing continuous development on classroom time management and planning for the effective use of AfL.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.473
Pages: 473-485
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Science literacy, which is included in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) as an assessment area, is an important research and discussion area of science education literature with all its dimensions. In this study, the clustering results of the students from 34 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries participating in the PISA 2015 test and sampled by systematic sampling method are obtained by K-Means Clustering and Two-Step Cluster Analysis using the factor scores and PISA science literacy average scores. It is thought that the study is of great importance in terms of dividing individuals into clusters according to science instruction methods and the mean of plausible values and having an idea about how each cluster is defined. As a result of the K-means cluster analysis, it was determined that the input variable with the highest level of importance in the formation of the first and third clusters in which the students with the highest scores were included was teacher-directed science instruction, and after this variable, the input variable with the highest level of importance was the perceived feedback from science teachers. Within the scope of the Two-Step Clustering Analysis, it was determined that teacher-directed science instruction has the most importance in terms of the decomposition of clusters, followed by adaptive instruction in science lessons in terms of importance level.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.487
Pages: 487-500
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Examination of Mother-Child Math Talks’ Content and Process during Shared Book Reading

math talk math-themed storybooks mother-child shared book reading

Belma Turker-Biber , Aysegul Akinci-Cosgun , Feyza Aydin-Bolukbas


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The study aims to analyze, in terms of content and process, the math talks between the mother and child during the shared book reading of the illustrated storybooks with math contents. The study group under the research is comprised of nine pairs of mother and child. The process of the study 18 videos which were recorded when two storybooks with math contents were read by the mothers. In the data collection process, each pair of mother and child together read two storybooks given to them in their home environment, and the entire process was video-recorded. Subsequently, interviews were held with mothers for identifying their views about supporting their children’s math skills. It was shown that the content of mother-child math talks in the home environment was mostly about the learning area of numbers and counting skills. It was a remarkable result that math concepts such as sorting/ranking and properties/features of objects were not in the contents of mother-child math talks. The results from interviews with mothers, it was inferred that the mothers viewed themselves as inadequate for talking to their children about math concepts, and performed the math talks mostly on the basic skills such as counting the numbers.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.501
Pages: 501-515
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This study seeks to reveal the perceptions of pre-service visual arts teachers on social justice through art-based practices focused on social justice. Designing on visual phenomenology, this study was performed in the fall semester of the 2018-2019 academic year. Five different activities involving visual inquiries are presented to reveal the perceptions of the pre-service teachers on social justice. The research participants are 35 (13 male, 22 female) sophomore-level pre-service teachers. The data are obtained through course documents, reflective diaries and semi-structured interviews. The data are then analysed through content analysis; reliability and validity are ensured through triangulation. This study identifies four different themes: association, questioning, transformation and reflection. The findings show that the pre-service teachers questioned common issues related to social justice. It was observed in the activities performed in this study that the pre-service teachers identified the visual themes. They mentioned common social justice issues based on the things they experienced and their observations. These are such as women's rights, violence against women, children's rights, LGBT, animal rights, language and religion differences, income imbalance, racism, and discrimination. The issues they questioned were the direct expression of the individual experiences of the pre-service teachers through visuals.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.517
Pages: 517-545
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