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College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
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Volume 10 Issue 2 (May 2024) - In Progress

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The role of artificial intelligence (AI) in education remains incompletely understood, demanding further evaluation and the creation of robust assessment tools. Despite previous attempts to measure AI's impact in education, existing studies have limitations. This research aimed to develop and validate an assessment instrument for gauging AI effects in higher education. Employing various analytical methods, including Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Rasch Analysis, the initial 70-item instrument covered seven constructs. Administered to 635 students at Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology – Gabaldon campus, content validity was assessed using the Lawshe method. After eliminating 19 items through EFA and CFA, Rasch analysis confirmed the construct validity and led to the removal of three more items. The final 48-item instrument, categorized into learning experiences, academic performance, career guidance, motivation, self-reliance, social interactions, and AI dependency, emerged as a valid and reliable tool for assessing AI's impact on higher education, especially among college students.

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10.12973/ijem.10.2.997
Pages: 197-211
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Cognitive Technology to Evaluate the Academic Learning of Computational Cognition in Psychology Students

academic learning cognitive assessment natural semantic networks psychology students semantic priming

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Angel Garcia-Collantes , Rafael Manuel Lopez-Perez


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This study illustrated an alternative way to evaluate students’ academic learning. It involved the joint and intertwined application of the natural semantic network technique, computer simulations, and semantic priming experiments to assess the cognitive changes in knowledge structures due to academic learning in two groups of psychology students. The experimental group was enrolled in a course on computational cognition, while the control group was oblivious to this course. The results indicated that the cognitive assessment tools discriminate the cognitive changes produced as a result of general training undertaken in a psychology degree versus the influence of a specific course. After the course, the experimental group increased their technical vocabulary, changed their conceptual valuation of definers related to computational theories of mind, and reorganized the relations among definers according to the computational cognition approach. Also, this group presented a higher connectivity index between the concepts of the semantic network, their conceptual activation level and conceptual co-activation pattern changed, and their access level to the evaluated schema’s concepts improved. In contrast, the control group did not show significant changes in their cognitive patterns after the course. These findings suggest that cognitive tools may be helpful in the diagnosis of academic learning.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1013
Pages: 213-225
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This study aims to explore the relationship between proactive behaviors, teaching performance, and organizational support among vocational college teachers. Based on the theory of organizational support, we conducted a survey of 373 teachers from four vocational colleges in Shanxi Province, using scales for proactive behaviors, organizational support, and teaching performance. The results indicate that: (a) There is a significant correlation between teachers' proactive behaviors and teaching performance; (b) There is a significant correlation between teachers' proactive behaviors and organizational support; (c) Organizational support plays a significant mediating role in the relationship between teachers' proactive behaviors and teaching performance. This study enriches the application of organizational support in vocational colleges, providing empirical evidence for improving teachers' proactive behaviors in higher education institutions, which could be useful for central or local education policy decision-makers and implementing units. Additionally, this model could be further applied beyond vocational education to other contexts or policies, demonstrating both theoretical and practical significance.

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10.12973/ijem.10.2.1027
Pages: 227-239
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Teachers' classroom practice encompasses diverse facets of teacher behavior. Understanding teachers’ classroom practice is important as the literature has been well documented its association with student, teacher, and classroom outcomes. Positive teacher-student relationships and proper classroom management, both are important aspects of teachers’ classroom practices, have been empirically linked to increasing student academic performance and reducing problem behaviors. This study explored patterns of teacher classroom practices across teacher-student relationships and classroom management and validated them using a person-oriented approach, k-means clustering, on three sets of data with over 600 participants. Using indicators of classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS), three distinct teacher profiles were identified: supportive, intermediate, and detached. Supportive teachers demonstrated high levels of teacher-student relationships and classroom management, while detached teachers showed low levels of both. Intermediate teachers fell between these two groups. The study also compared these profiles based on teacher self-efficacy, work stress, and classroom climate. Supportive teachers had the highest classroom climate scores, followed by intermediate and detached. Work stress was comparable for intermediate and supportive teachers, but both were lower than detached. No group differences were found for self-efficacy. This study contributes to the understanding of teacher behaviors with students in the lower grades.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1041
Pages: 241-259
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The field of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction has gained recognition worldwide, particularly in non-native English-speaking countries. However, traditional teaching methods fall short of meeting the needs of today's EFL learners. In response, the Production-Oriented Approach (POA) has emerged as a new pedagogical approach to address these challenges. Despite its significant impact on EFL education, there is a lack of reviews on the POA. This study conducted a systematic review to explore the POA's effectiveness, challenges, and future trends. Using the PRISMA framework, 31 articles from reputable databases (Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were analyzed, covering the years 2018 to 2023. The study's comprehensive analysis, employing Nvivo, revealed that the POA has immense potential for enhancing English learners' language skills, particularly in reading, speaking, writing, and translating. Moreover, the study highlighted the POA's positive influence on learners' affective factors, including motivation, confidence, critical thinking, and self-directed learning abilities. Nonetheless, the POA faces challenges for both teachers and learners, particularly during the transition from traditional methods and the associated increase in workload. Despite these challenges, this study unequivocally establishes the POA as an effective pedagogical approach for teaching EFL. Additionally, it identifies research gaps that must be addressed to sustain and improve EFL education in the future through further development of the POA.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1061
Pages: 261-277
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Mathematical modeling offers a promising approach to improving mathematics education. This study aims to determine if the concept of metacognitive awareness in the learning process is associated with mathematical modeling. This study also considers the interaction effect of sex and academic year level on both variables. Focusing the study on preservice elementary teachers might address potential issues and targeted intervention in their preparation program concerning their ability to teach and guide young learners in modeling activities. The research sample includes 140 preservice elementary teachers at Central Luzon State University, Philippines. Data collection used an adapted metacognitive awareness inventory and a validated researcher-made mathematical modeling competency test aligned with the K-12 mathematics curriculum in the Philippines. Results revealed that the preservice elementary teachers had a high metacognitive awareness and mathematical modeling competency, ranging from 22 to 31 out of 36 points. Besides, Factorial ANOVA indicates that academic year level positively affects both variables regardless of sex, and stepwise regression analysis unveiled that information management, declarative knowledge, and planning significantly predict 41.4% of the mathematical modeling competency variance. This suggests that developing metacognitive awareness supports preservice elementary teachers in performing modeling tasks that improve their competency level in mathematics.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1079
Pages: 279-292
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) brings modern learning approaches, forms and methods to education, and with them new opportunities for learning and teaching. The use of ICT in the classroom motivates students, enables them to participate, provides individualisation and differentiation, interactivity, and encourages creativity and critical thinking. Teachers play a very important role in this, as they are the ones who can provide students with a stimulating learning environment, including through the use of ICT. As Slovene (first language) is the subject with the most teaching hours in public primary schools in the Republic of Slovenia, we conducted an empirical study on the views of general and subject teachers of Slovene (N = 190) on the integration of information and communication technology in teaching. Teachers’ opinions were investigated through quantitative research. We found that teachers frequently use ICT in Slovene lessons, namely for repeating and consolidating learning material and for presenting new learning material, and that ICT is used most often in frontal forms of learning. Teachers mostly use LCD projectors, computers, interactive whiteboards, e-workbooks, audio recordings and videos. We also found that teachers are moderately satisfied with the available ICT equipment and e-materials, and that they feel moderately competent when it comes to using ICT in Slovene lessons. Teachers also used ICT during the COVID-19 epidemic. We also found that there are no statistically significant differences in the use of ICT between teachers teaching Slovene according to their teaching level, age and years of service.

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10.12973/ijem.10.2.1093
Pages: 293-306
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