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menu_book Articles in Press

Volume 9 Issue 4 (November 2023)

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collaborative learning on learners’ communicative strategies in English for specific purpose (ESP) tour guide training course. The 12-week study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test, following the instruction of twelve topics in the ESP language training course. A total of 60 ESP language learners participated in the study. The experimental group was instructed using collaborative learning in the ESP tour guide language training and the control group was taught using a lecture-based approach. Data from the communicative strategies questionnaire were collected to assess the effectiveness of collaborative learning on learning communicative strategies in the ESP context. The results of the study showed that the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group on both the oral problem coping strategy scale and the listening problem coping strategy scale of the communicative strategies scale in the ESP environment. Based on the findings of the study, collaborative learning is effective in enhancing the language learners' communicative strategies in tour guide training course. Moreover, the study suggests that there should be a critical reflection on the ESP training course currently offered for tour guide language learners.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.619
Pages: 619-630
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Cognitive Conflict Based on Thinking Errors in Constructing Mathematical Concept

cognitive conflict misplaced concepts misanalogy pseudo thinking thinking errors

Iwan Setiawan HR , Purwanto , Sukoriyanto , I Nengah Parta


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This study aims to evaluate cognitive conflict in constructing mathematical concepts, based on thinking errors. The data were collected through observations of words or sentences, leading to the derivation of qualitative outputs. Furthermore, the results showed that the two selected subjects experienced cognitive conflicts regarding thinking errors in mathematical concept construction. This selection process was conducted through the provision of the questions obtained in the first semester of mathematics, at Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. These questions consisted of several indicators, with each of them having three components, namely the main, tracking, and supporting items. Based on the results, two subjects experienced thinking errors in constructing the concept of algebraic root form addition. This emphasized the errors in placing concepts (misplaced), pseudo-thinking, and misanalogy. A conflict was also observed between the initial concept knowledge of using variables in algebraic addition and the new principles understood through the root summation in algebra. Furthermore, there was also a conflict between the concept understanding he had in terms of the addition operation of the root form and a new understanding of the addition operation of the root form in algebra.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.631
Pages: 631-643
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Methodology for University Mathematics Teaching Staff: Emotional-Technological-Ontological Logic Evaluation

andragogical education covid-19 heterotopia technology monitoring learning process

Derling José Mendoza Velazco , Magda Francisca Cejas Martínez , Carmen Siavil Varguillas Carmona , Mercedes Carolina Navarro Cejas


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The aim of the research was to develop a theoretical approach to describe the emotional and techno-ontological logic of mathematics teachers during distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of their emotional state on the learning process. The research approach used in this paper belongs to the qualitative paradigm. The study involved teachers and students from universities in Ecuador, both private and public. The study observed the behavior of teachers and students, analyzed the use of technology in mathematical activities, and analyzed personal opinions about the learning process of the participants of the study. A digital observation guide and open-ended interviews were used to collect data. The qualitative analysis program Atlas. Ti was used to analyze the data. The program created three categories: andragogical heterotopia of mathematics, emotional scar in teacher preparation, and perceptions of the educational process. As the results of the research showed, there was a deficit of digital professional training of teachers in the university teaching of mathematics. As a result of the research work carried out, a theoretical approach is proposed, through which it is possible to avoid the manifestation of techno-ontological logical emotions in mathematics teachers in Ecuadorian universities.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.645
Pages: 645-655
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Teacher well-being is a stimulating topic frequently appearing in studies over long periods. Teachers are typically exposed to stress that, when addressed, can lead to low morale and positively impact their work. This study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and well-being among preschool teachers in Selangor. We used a quantitative research method and correlational research design to test the hypotheses and answer the research questions. The current study involved 977 government preschool teachers selected using a cluster random sampling method. After data cleaning, a data set of 610 respondents was used for this study. This study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS for data analysis. SEM Analysis showed that job satisfaction positively influences teachers' well-being. However, our results also showed that the subconstruct of job satisfaction with students did not significantly influence preschool teachers' well-being.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.657
Pages: 657-669
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Active learning (AL) techniques invite students to participate actively, either physically or mentally, in the learning process so that they can change their behavior efficiently to achieve great achievement. Still, there is insufficient knowledge concerning the dimensions of AL techniques for business subjects of secondary school students in Malaysia. Thus, the research’s goal is to assist in the determination of the instruments’ reliability to measure the AL techniques measurement scale for business subjects’ students using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) as well as reliability analysis. Moreover, this research conducted a self-administered survey among secondary school students who have taken business subjects as their elective subjects. From secondary schools in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, 123 respondents were randomly chosen for the sample. To measure the AL constructs, the study retained 30 items developed because no items have been omitted since the factor loading turned out higher than the 0.50 cut-off point and was used as a tool for data collection. Essentially, this research empirically validates the dimension which helps lead to AL techniques in business subjects that are improved, and the findings are particularly beneficial to secondary school students in Malaysia.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.671
Pages: 671-684
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This descriptive phenomenological study looks into the lived experiences of teacher education college students on what it is like to learn math online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the pandemic, online math learning may pose even more significant challenges. Hence, the researchers conducted the study to better understand and support the students in these challenging times. They interviewed 16 college student participants, who consented to participate in the study, to share their actual experiences - the challenges, struggles, and opportunities – in learning math online during the pandemic. The interview transcripts were analyzed following Colaizzi's method. Results revealed the following themes: (a) The hurdles: poor internet connection, unconducive learning space, difficulty in understanding the topics, financial problems, and health problems; (b) The upper hands: ease of access to varied resources, staying at home, and flexibility of the teaching and learning process; (c) The key takeaways: improved time management, self-discipline, resourcefulness, and growth mindset. The researchers recommend that the management of educational institutions consider the students' demographic data, financial level, available resources, and mental and emotional health while designing and implementing online programs. Further, future research may be conducted on the teachers' concerns that may influence students' online learning experiences with Math and other disciplines.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.685
Pages: 685-695
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Knowledge-based economy is an economic model students need to be prepared for a future economic model that uses knowledge as its main resource. Therefore, this study developed and validated instruments for constructing knowledge-based economy readiness among undergraduate students. This study used an online questionnaire with 120 respondents of economic education students in educational universities in East Java, Indonesia, for exploratory factor analysis and 417 respondents for confirmatory factor analysis. Then, statistical analysis was conducted using exploratory factor analysis in SPSS and confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS. This study first developed five factors of knowledge of economics, readiness for economic challenges, readiness for education, readiness for infrastructure, and readiness for innovation, consisting of 27 items. However, one item was removed because the loading factor was below .50. Consequently, 26 items were retained because the loading factor was significantly greater than .50. The Cronbach's alpha value for each item of the knowledge-based economy readiness construct was >.60 and met all goodness of fit index criteria, which means that it meets the requirements and can measure the construct of knowledge-based economy readiness. Since this study meets the validity and reliability requirements of the constructs leading to knowledge-based economy readiness, these results will help students prepare for the current and future knowledge-based economy. They can be used in developing economic education curricula in higher education.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.697
Pages: 697-710
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Unveiling the Linguistic Landscape: The Gendered Impacts on Language Learning Strategies for Introverted Learners

gender introverted learners language learning strategies vietnamese english-major students

Thanh Thao Le , Anh Thi Nguyen , Thi Hai Yen Thieu , Hoang Yen Phuong , Trut Thuy Pham , Thi Anh Thu Huynh , Huong Tra Nguyen


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This study explores the impact of gender on the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted students in Vietnam, given the burgeoning role of English as an international lingua franca. A mixed-methods approach, involving survey questionnaires and follow-up interviews, was utilized to gather both quantitative and qualitative data from a cohort of 68 English major undergraduates, 29 of whom self-identified as introverted via the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The investigation provides a comprehensive understanding of the preferred language learning strategies among introverted learners, and specifically examines how gender influences these strategic choices. The results reveal that gender does not present significant differences in the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted individuals. Regardless of gender, introverted language learners demonstrate a tendency towards compensation learning strategies, with specific strategies such as deductive reasoning, organizing physical environs, and error rectification receiving almost identical responses from both male and female participants. These findings suggest that the role of personality traits, such as introversion, should be considered in tailoring pedagogical approaches to meet individual learning preferences and needs. Further research is needed to explore this area in greater depth and to examine its broader implications for English language teaching pedagogy.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.711
Pages: 711-723
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The iNaturalist application has been gaining traction in both biodiversity research and education. Increasingly more research is being carried out, looking into using the iNaturalist application in biology education, to promote biodiversity and educate students about this topic. We used the PRISMA systematic literature review method to examine research carried out using the iNaturalist application in biology education by searching Web of Science and Scopus, and including citizen science in the process. We searched through the iNaturalist forum, where users contribute research performed using iNaturalist. We found that an increasing number of articles have been published on this topic over the years. Researchers are using iNaturalist to improve BioBlitz activities, to enhance outdoor education activities, and to help make herbaria. Summarizing the work performed in this area, we suggest guidelines for including and preparing the iNaturalist application in a school context to be used by teachers and researchers alike.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.725
Pages: 725-744
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An Exploration into the Impact of Flipped Classroom Model on Cadets’ Problem-Solving Skills: A Mix Method Study

flipped classroom mix method problem-solving skill

Muhammad Ivan , Maria Ulfah , Awalludin Awalludin , Novarita Novarita , Rita Nilawijaya , Di’amah Fitriyyah


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Many education and learning experts currently recommend the flipped classroom model as an alternative to learning after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the impact of the flipped classroom model on social skills and problem-solving skills for cadets. This research used a sequential mix method involving 50 maritime students in semester 7 of the Engineering Study Program at the Maritime Sciences Polytechnic Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Researchers used two main instruments, namely problem-solving skill tests and interviews. Furthermore, in the quantitative analysis, the researcher ran paired sample t-tests and one-way Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) using the SPSS 25.00 program. In addition, researchers also analysed qualitative data from interviews using thematic analysis techniques. The results showed that the flipped classroom model proved to have a positive effect on the problem-solving skills of maritime students. Other findings state that the cadets also respond positively to the flipped classroom model. Researchers recommend that teachers use the flipped classroom model, especially in dealing with learning in the post-pandemic era, like today.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.745
Pages: 745-759
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Based on institutional theory, this study explores the causal relationship between teacher professional identity, perceived institutional norms, and teachers’ conformity behavior in colleges and universities in Hunan Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 500 teachers from two universities in Hunan Province. The reliability and validity test results and structural equation modeling analysis show that the professional identity of college teachers positively affects their conformity behavior, and that perceived institutional norms partially mediate the relationship between teacher professional identity and teacher conformity behavior. The research enriches the application of institutional theory in university organization and provides an empirical basis for universities to improve teachers’ conformity behavior.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.761
Pages: 761-770
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Computational Thinking Through the Engineering Design Process in Chemistry Education

computational thinking engineering design process chemistry

Norhaslinda Abdul Samad , Kamisah Osman , Nazrul Anuar Nayan


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This study investigated the influence of CThink4CS2 Module on computational thinking (CT) skills of form four chemistry students. The CThink4CS2 Module integrated CT with the Engineering Design Process (EDP) in chemistry class. This study utilized quantitative research methods and quasi-experimental design. Quantitative data were collected using the Computational Thinking Skill Test (CTST) which consisted of algorithmic reasoning, abstraction, decomposition, and pattern recognition constructs. A total of 73 students were in the treatment group (n=39) and control group (n=34). Experimental data were described by means of descriptive analysis and inferential analysis employing two-way MANOVA analysis. The results of the analysis indicated significant differences in CT skills between groups; students in the treatment group demonstrated better results compared to those in the control group. The paper provides insight into the integration of CT and EDP as effective pedagogical strategies for inculcating CT skills.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.771
Pages: 771-785
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This research article focuses on the design and validation of a questionnaire to analyse future teachers' perceptions of professional skills through the use of Augmented Reality (AR) in higher education, specifically for students in the field of Educational Sciences. The sample consisted of 575 students of Early Childhood Education, Primary Education and Pedagogy during the academic year (2021/2022). The focus of this study is to authenticate a questionnaire that measures the influence of Augmented Reality (AR) on aspects such as situated learning, motivation, and the necessary instructional preparations for the successful integration of AR within classroom educational encounters. The questionnaire is an online Likert-type scale developed based on three dimensions: situated learning, motivation and training. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 and JASP 0.17.1. The questionnaire met the standards recommended for validation. However, improvements to the instrument are suggested. In conclusion, validation of instruments is necessary to gain a rigorous understanding of the impact of new learning environments.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.787
Pages: 787-799
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The purpose of this study was to classify the active job behaviors of Generation Z (Gen Z, born after 1995) elementary school teachers and investigate relevant variables that significantly affect such a classification. A total of 375 Gen Z elementary school teachers who passed the National Elementary Teacher Qualification Test and had worked in elementary schools in South Korea participated in this study. The data collected identified the types of active job behaviors among Gen Z elementary school teachers using cross-tabulation through Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors that influence the types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers. The results were as follows: First, there are four types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers: Ideal, relational, non-participatory, and passive job performance types. Second, teacher efficacy, learning agility, organizational commitment, and principals’ transformational leadership influenced the types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers. The results offer insights into the human resource management of Gen Z elementary school teachers and have significant implications for improving the active job behavior of Gen Z elementary school teachers.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.801
Pages: 801-814
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Exploring Student Representations of Biodiversity in Science Education in Morocco: A Didactic Perspective

biodiversity school program secondary school students’ representation

Asma Id-Babou , Sabah Selmaoui , Anouar Alami , Nadia Benjelloun , Moncef Zaki


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In teaching, students' representations could constitute an obstacle to the construction of scientific knowledge and are often considered stable cognitive structures whose organization is sought to be inferred through questionnaires and interviews. This study aims at identifying and analyzing high school students’ representations related to the concept of biodiversity. To meet this objective, a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire were used to collect data. 202 Moroccan students participated in this survey (46.5% from rural areas and 53.5% from urban areas of the "Direction Provinciale" of education of Guelmim city in Morocco). The results of the interview indicated that only 1.82% of the students gave a definition that consists of the three biodiversity dimensions, namely the species, the ecosystems, and the genetic diversity. The questionnaire results revealed a low to medium correlation between their representations and their acquired knowledge related to the concept of biodiversity dealt with in Moroccan school programs (from the discipline of "scientific activity" in the primary cycle and that of "life and earth sciences" in the secondary cycle). The results further indicated a low presence of supervised activities related to biodiversity within the school and therefore a low degree of influence on the students' representations. It was concluded that there was no effective transmission or adequate assimilation of the concept of biodiversity among the students surveyed.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.815
Pages: 815-829
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