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IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE

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This study aims to understand the opinions of middle school and high school students about language learning and studying other content in an additional language in the school settings where English is used as the medium of instruction to teach more than 50% of the curriculum. For this end, 261 students from three different schools were administered a questionnaire.  Results indicate students generally have very positive opinions about learning languages and studying content in their non-native language. There is no statistically significant difference between the students’ opinion and their school level, and the years that they have been learning a language and studying content in an additional language. However, the students who have a negative opinion about the school have negative opinions about learning languages and studying content in an additional language. The possible reasons for these were evaluated from the perspective of language learning context but further study would be needed to establish causality.  

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10.12973/ijem.4.1.29
Pages: 29-35
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The teaching and learning of mathematics in South Africa are conducted through the authorised Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT). South Africa has eleven official languages, and English is a Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) from the Intermediate and Further Education and Training (FET) Phase. This study explores teachers' views on code-switching as a communicative technique to enhance teaching mathematics in Grade 4 in selected primary schools in South Africa. This qualitative single case study employed the interpretivist paradigm and social constructivism theory. A convenient purposive sampling technique was used to sample six grade 4 mathematics teachers from three primary schools in the Alexandra township in South Africa. Researchers collected data through the use of semi-structured interviews, which were later analysed and discussed using themes. Findings indicate that teachers often code-switch from LoLT (English First Additional Language) into Home Language (H.L.) to enhance learners' understanding of the mathematics concepts. Researchers suggested the integration of code-switching into the curriculum policy and followed by in-service training for Grade 4 mathematics teachers in code-switching.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.637
Pages: 637-648
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480
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808
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3

Scopus
2

Sometimes Finding Nothing is Something: Shrinking the Gap between Emerging Bilingual Learners and English Fluent Students (Case in Point)

emerging bilingual instruction science steam stem

Michael W. Corrigan , Douglas Grove , Sage Andersen , Joseph T. Wong , Bradley S. Hughes


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For United States of America (USA) and other developed countries, science achievement gaps begin to emerge in elementary and primary school. Such gaps between USA student groups typically are connected to socio-economic status (SES) and issues such as students still learning the English language. Through an experimental design, this National Science Foundation funded study explores how integrating the arts into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and leading with a more STEAM-first approach (e.g., curriculum which integrates science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) might provide more equitable science learning opportunities for elementary or primary grade level students. More specifically, the project’s research efforts seek to also examine how integrating the arts into science instruction might help emerging bilingual (EB) students who are simultaneously learning the English language and science. Although results provide somewhat conflicting findings of statistical significance with small to moderate effect sizes, outcomes provide initial evidence that leading with STEAM science instruction before STEM efforts can be beneficial to early readers, and for EB students this benefit is magnified. As the title of this study suggest, sometimes finding nothing is something.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.11
Pages: 11-27
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303
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776
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2

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Through an exploration of language practices in an early years setting, this paper aims to examine discourses about transforming monolingual practice generated during an internally driven action research. Based on a small private nursery in an affluent part of London, this action research was conducted with the intention of reviewing internal practices that support young children who speak English as an additional language (EAL). Parents and practitioners took part in an initial questionnaire (n=21). This was followed by semi-structured interviews (n=3) and a focus group (n=5) with practitioners. The data was analysed considering some of the theoretical points proposed by Bourdieu and the discourse analysis tools suggested by van Leeuwen. Despite the recognition of potential barriers, encouraging positive dispositions towards language diversity were identified. The most significant feature of our examination was the value of local knowledge and the diverse language repertoires encountered in the setting. Our analysis evidence that action research can empower practitioners to challenge monolingual mindsets and to move towards an exploration of alternative (plurilingual) ideas, despite the monolingual ethos imposed by the curriculum and other external regulatory forces.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.131
Pages: 129-138
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390
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608
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This study examined the effect of Yunnan’s ethnic minority college students’ acculturation on their academic achievement under the risk of the Matthew effect. Additionally, the role played by learning motivation in the relationship between ethnic minority college students’ acculturation and academic achievement was explored. A total of 403 valid questionnaires were collected from four areas in Yunnan province, China. Consequently, the Acculturation Scale, Academic Achievement Scale, and Learning Motivation Scale were used for measurement materials. These items of scales were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) and AMOS (analysis of a moment structures) softwares were used for data analyses. In addition, items were analyzed through item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis. These results indicated that ethnic minority college students with low acculturation and learning motivation or high acculturation and low learning motivation can become objects of the Matthew effect. However, this study also observed that in certain students, high acculturation and high learning motivation can prevent the Matthew effect. Thus, high acculturation is crucial for improving academic achievement in ethnic minority college students. A level of high learning motivation is a powerful moderator promoting the academic achievement of students with high acculturation.

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10.12973/ijem.8.2.199
Pages: 199-210
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383
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608
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This study explores international graduate students' experiences of content-language integrated learning (CLIL) at a university in Korea. This study focuses on a course that allows international students to simultaneously learn the Korean language and content knowledge. Korean as a medium of instruction (KMI) was applied to 16 international graduate students in two graduate courses during the 2021 Fall semester. The survey examines the perception and satisfaction of students' experiences in the KMI classes. Among survey participants, interview applicants were selected for in-depth interviews. Study results showed that international graduate students developed content knowledge through KMI classes. They also improved their Korean language ability. Overall, international students were generally satisfied with KMI classes. However, it is difficult for international students to dramatically enhance their Korean academic proficiency within one semester. Recommendations are provided on effectively conducting CLIL classes, such as KMI for international students in higher education.

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10.12973/ijem.8.3.421
Pages: 421-429
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412
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690
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2

Scopus
1

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This study aims to understand international students' learning experiences in English as a medium of instruction (EMI) courses in a private Korean university. By using mixed-method research, this study collected two data sources, including 1) an online survey (n=46) and 2) an individual in-depth interview (n=4) at the end of the 2022 Spring semester. The study results are summarized as follows. First, EMI courses could enhance international students' content knowledge development effectively. Second, EMI courses could improve international students' English proficiency in terms of reading and vocabulary ability. Third, international students showed high satisfaction with EMI courses and are willing to take EMI courses continuously. However, the interview analysis showed that it was challenging for a few international students to improve their English speaking ability due to limited opportunities to speak English during graduate-level courses. These study results suggest several recommendations to provide practical EMI courses for teaching diverse international students, including English language learners in higher education.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.639
Pages: 639-645
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836
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The study discussed in this paper is a systematic literature review related to the role of dual language programme (DLP) in mathematics education which has been published within the last 5 years. This study was conducted to identify the distribution of DLP studies in terms of year of publication, the study context covered in previous studies, the context of study areas used, focus and trends of past studies, research methods used in previous studies and the role of language in school mathematics education. This review study followed the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) to analyze articles from Scopus and Web of Science. The findings of the study indicate that research trends in the implementation of the DLP on mathematics education for secondary school students showed an increase from 2017 to 2019. Most DLP-related articles are widely developed in the United States and Germany. The findings indicate that previous studies are more interested in studying the implementation of DLP in rural areas. Past studies have also preferred to use the design of either a qualitative study or a quantitative study to be implemented. Questionnaires, tests and interviews are among the research instruments that are often used for a study.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.669
Pages: 669-686
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317
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620
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2

Unveiling the Linguistic Landscape: The Gendered Impacts on Language Learning Strategies for Introverted Learners

gender introverted learners language learning strategies vietnamese english-major students

Thanh Thao Le , Anh Thi Nguyen , Thi Hai Yen Thieu , Hoang Yen Phuong , Trut Thuy Pham , Thi Anh Thu Huynh , Huong Tra Nguyen


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This study explores the impact of gender on the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted students in Vietnam, given the burgeoning role of English as an international lingua franca. A mixed-methods approach, involving survey questionnaires and follow-up interviews, was utilized to gather both quantitative and qualitative data from a cohort of 68 English major undergraduates, 29 of whom self-identified as introverted via the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The investigation provides a comprehensive understanding of the preferred language learning strategies among introverted learners, and specifically examines how gender influences these strategic choices. The results reveal that gender does not present significant differences in the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted individuals. Regardless of gender, introverted language learners demonstrate a tendency towards compensation learning strategies, with specific strategies such as deductive reasoning, organizing physical environs, and error rectification receiving almost identical responses from both male and female participants. These findings suggest that the role of personality traits, such as introversion, should be considered in tailoring pedagogical approaches to meet individual learning preferences and needs. Further research is needed to explore this area in greater depth and to examine its broader implications for English language teaching pedagogy.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.711
Pages: 711-723
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573
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The Challenging Path of Welcoming and Inclusion of Foreign Students in Schools: A Systematic Review

interculturality migration school coexistence school inclusion school integration welcoming

María Rodríguez Riquelme , María Belén Ortega-Senet , Caterine Galaz , Andrew Philominraj


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Interculturality, inclusion, and diversity are generally associated with bilingualism in countries with different socio-cultural identities, but rarely with school coexistence among students hailing from different backgrounds. The present systematic review is framed in a descriptive-qualitative approach since its main objective is to provide an account of the relationship between welcoming, school coexistence, and the integration and inclusion processes in schools in countries receiving foreign migrant families. For this purpose, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EBSCO, and SCiELO databases were searched using a reference chain, and according to search results, 26 empirical studies retrieved from those databases published between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The main findings indicate that the inclusion process is developed through the acculturation and disciplining devices of foreign children to the dominant national logic, which marks a hierarchical difference between nationalities. They also highlight the recognition of cultural diversity under the logic of folklorization and a vision that focuses on academic achievement rather than on the particularities that cultural diversity can contribute to social relations and learning within the school.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.801
Pages: 1-18
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The review article presents an analysis of the literature on environmental literacy in sustainable development. By utilizing techniques to examine multiple documents published between 2013 and 2023, including citation analysis, co-authorship analysis, subject area analysis, and keyword analysis, this study aims to provide valuable information and insights into the research landscape surrounding environmental literacy and its contribution to promoting sustainable development. A systematic search was conducted to gather several scientific articles, conference papers, and publications from the Scopus database from 2013 to 2023. The findings of this analysis shed light on authors, influential institutions, and active research groups that contributed to the study of environmental literacy and sustainable development. This comprehensive review offers an understanding of the state of research in this field while identifying areas for further exploration and research gaps. The insights gained from this study can be highly beneficial for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners seeking to advance knowledge and take action toward promoting literacy's role in sustainable development. This analysis is a foundation for advancing our understanding of literacy's significance while emphasizing its vital role in sustainable development efforts.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.979
Pages: 179-195
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290
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579
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Mathematical modeling offers a promising approach to improving mathematics education. This study aims to determine if the concept of metacognitive awareness in the learning process is associated with mathematical modeling. This study also considers the interaction effect of sex and academic year level on both variables. Focusing the study on preservice elementary teachers might address potential issues and targeted intervention in their preparation program concerning their ability to teach and guide young learners in modeling activities. The research sample includes 140 preservice elementary teachers at Central Luzon State University, Philippines. Data collection used an adapted metacognitive awareness inventory and a validated researcher-made mathematical modeling competency test aligned with the K-12 mathematics curriculum in the Philippines. Results revealed that the preservice elementary teachers had a high metacognitive awareness and mathematical modeling competency, ranging from 22 to 31 out of 36 points. Besides, Factorial ANOVA indicates that academic year level positively affects both variables regardless of sex, and stepwise regression analysis unveiled that information management, declarative knowledge, and planning significantly predict 41.4% of the mathematical modeling competency variance. This suggests that developing metacognitive awareness supports preservice elementary teachers in performing modeling tasks that improve their competency level in mathematics.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1079
Pages: 279-292
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