logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

RHAPSODE LTD
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
RHAPSODE LTD
Headquarters
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
inclusion teacher change pedagogy

Inclusive Education and Pedagogical Change: Experiences from the Front Lines

Monique Somma , Sheila Bennett

Many educators hold beliefs that including students, at least to some degree, has academic and social benefits, however, they struggle with fundamenta.

M

Many educators hold beliefs that including students, at least to some degree, has academic and social benefits, however, they struggle with fundamental pedagogy. With a global shift from a segregated lens to that of an inclusive lens, special education teachers who once held positive beliefs towards segregated special education are now faced with a new reality of teaching students with disabilities in inclusive classroom settings. This paper highlights the experiences of ten educators who transitioned from teaching in a self-contained class to an inclusive class. Focus group and interview themes indicated that all had experienced a shift in their pedagogy- their overall beliefs and teaching methods- after they taught students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others, and systematic barriers within the education system. Highlights of their change process include the positive performance of students with disabilities, the growth and development of the other students, and their overall pedagogical self-reflection. As a result, a framework, the Inclusive Educators’ Continuum of Change, was developed to highlight the change process and connect this research to the literature on inclusion and teacher change. This diagram can provide teacher educators a framework for discussing pedagogical change. Implications for professional development and teacher training for inclusive practice, as well as maximizing the educator skills in Professional Learning Communities (PLC) and mentorship opportunities will be highlighted.

Keywords: Inclusion, teacher change, pedagogy.

cloud_download PDF
Cite
Article Metrics
Views
3364
Download
2715
Citations
Crossref
6

Scopus

References

Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: A review of the literature. Journal of Special Needs Education 17(2), 129-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250210129056

Bean, R., Hamilton, R., Zigmond, N., & Morris, G. (1994). The changing roles of special education teachers in a full-time mainstreaming program: rights without labels. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 10(2), 171-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057356940100207

Bekirogullari, Z., Soyturk, K., & Gulsen, C. (2011). The attitudes of special education  teachers and mainstreaming education teachers working in Cyprus and special education teachers working in the USA towards mainstreaming education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 619–637.

Bennett, S. (2009). What works? Research into practice. Exceptionality, 10(12), 18-22.

Berry, R. (2011). Voices of experience: general education teachers on teaching students with disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(6), 627-648. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903278035

Boer, A. de, Pijl, S., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary schoolteachers’ attitudes  towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 331-353. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903030089

Bolat, Y. (2019). A phenomenological investigation with prospective teachers of special education: If it was me! International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(4), 607-622. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.4.607

Broome, R. (2011). Descriptive phenomenological psychological method: An example of a methodology section from doctoral dissertation. Saybrook University. https://bit.ly/2SoEruX

Burghardt, M. (2011). The human bottom of non-human things: on critical theory and its contributions to critical disability studies. Critical Disability Discourses, 3, 1–16.

Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. (2007). United Nations Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. United Nations. Https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf

Cook, B., Semmel, M., & Gerber, M. (1999). Attitudes of principals and special education teachers toward the inclusion of students with mild disabilities: critical differences of  opinion. Remedial and Special Education 20(4), 199-207.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Qualitative research. SAGE Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications.

Englander, M. (2012). The interview: data collection in descriptive phenomenological human scientific research. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 13-35.

Evans, L. (1996). Understanding teacher morale and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(8), 831–845.

Flaton, R. A. (2006). “Who Would I Be Without Danny?” Phenomenological case study of an adult sibling. Mental Retardation44(2), 135-144.

Forlin, C. (2001). Inclusion: Identifying potential stressors for regular class teachers. Educational Research, 43(3), 235–245.

Forlin, C., Loreman, T., Sharma, U., & Earle, C. (2009). Demographic differences in  changing pre‐service teachers’ attitudes, sentiments and concerns about inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(2), 195-209.

Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. (2012). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers. Allyn and Bacon.

Giangreco, M. F., Cloninger, C. J., Dennis, R. E., & Edelman, S. W. (1994). Problem solving methods to facilitate inclusive education. In J. S. Thousand, R.A. Villa & A. I. Nevin (Eds.), Creativity and Collaborative Learning: A Practical Guide to Empowering Students and Teachers (pp. 321–346). Brookes Publishing.

Giorgi, A. (2012). The descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 43(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1163/156916212X632934

Giorgi, A. (2009). The descriptive phenomenological method in psychology: A modified Husserlian approach. Duquesne University Press.

Grierson, A., & Gallagher, T. (2009). Seeing is believing: Creating a catalyst for teacher change through a demonstration classroom professional development  initiative. Professional Development in Education, 35(4), 567-584. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250902930726

Harpur, P. (2012). Embracing the new disability rights paradigm: the importance of the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Disability & Society, 27(1), 1-14.

Horkheimer, M. (1972). Critical theory: Selected essays (Vol. 1). Continuum.

Ivey, J., & Reinke, K. (2002). Pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in a non-traditional classroom. Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(6), article 4.    

Jordan, A., Glenn, C., & McGhie-Richmond, D. (2010). Effective teaching (SET) project: The relationship of inclusive teaching practices to teachers’ beliefs about disability and ability, and about their roles as teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(2), 259–266.

Lichtman, M. (2006). Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide. SAGE Publications.

MacFarlane, K., & Woolfson, L. (2013). Teacher attitudes and behavior toward the  inclusion of children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream  schools: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 46-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.006

Male, D. (2011). The impact of a professional development program on teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion. Support for Learning, 26(4), 182-186.

Maskit, D. (2011). Teachers’ attitudes toward pedagogical changes during various stages of professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(5), 811-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2011.01.009

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1984). Drawing valid meaning from qualitative data: Toward a shared craft. Educational Researcher13(5), 20–30.

Minow, M. (1991). Making all the difference: Inclusion, exclusion, and American law. Cornell University Press.

Mukhopadhyay, S. (2014). Botswana primary school teachers’ perception of inclusion of learners with special educational needs. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 14(1), 33-43.

Patton, M. (2002). Two decades of developments in qualitative inquiry: A personal, experiential perspective. Qualitative Social Work1(3), 261-283.

Pyhalto, K., Pietarinen, J., & Soini, T. (2012). Do comprehensive school teachers perceive themselves as active professional agents in school reforms? Journal of Educational   Change, 13(1), 95-116.

Porter, G. L. (2010). Making Canadian schools inclusive: A call to action. Education Canada, 44(1), 62–66.

Porter G., & Towell, D. (2017). Advancing inclusive education: Keys to transformational change in public education systems. Inclusive Education Canada.      http://inclusiveeducation.ca/2017/04/21/advancing-inclusive-education/

Quinn, G. (2009). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Toward a new international politics of disability. Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights, 15(1), 33–53.

Reiser, R., & Secretariat, C. (2012). Implementing inclusive education: A common wealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Commonwealth Secretariat London.

Richardson, V. (1998). How teachers change. Focus on basics: National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 2(C), 7-12.

Rioux, M. H., & Valentine, F. (2006). Does theory matter? Exploring the nexus between disability, human rights, and public policy. In R. Devlin & D. Pothier (Eds.), Critical Disability Theory: Essays in Philosophy, Politics, Policy, and Law (pp. 47-69). UBC Press.

Savas, A. C., Kosker, E., Demir, S., & Utar, N. (2015). Teachers’ perception on the relationship between change leadership and organizational commitment. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 1(1), 9-18.     

Scruggs, T., & Mastropieri, M. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958-1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63(1), 59-74.            

Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: a guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers College Press.

Sermier Dessemontet, R., Bless, G. & Morin, D. (2012) Effects of inclusion on the academic achievement and adaptive behaviour of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(6), 579-587.

Sharma, U., Loreman, T., & Forlin, C. (2012). Measuring teacher efficacy to implement inclusive practices. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12(1), 12-21.

Somma, M. (2020). From Segregation to Inclusion: Special Educators’ Experiences of Change. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24(4), 381-394.      https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1464070

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Final report, world conference on special needs education: Access and quality. UNESCO.  https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000098427

Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1995). Responsible inclusion for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28(5), 264–270. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221949502800502

Winzer, M. A. (1993). The history of special education: From isolation to integration. Gallaudet University Press.

Wlodarczyk, K. A., Somma, M., Bennett S., & Gallagher, T. L. (2015). Moving toward inclusion: Inclusion coaches' reflections and discussions in supporting educators in practice. Exceptionality Education International, 25(3), 55-73.

Woolfson, L., Grant, E., & Campbell, L. (2007). A comparison of special, general and support teachers’ controllability and stability attributions for children’s difficulties in learning. Educational Psychology, 27(2), 295-306.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. SAGE Publications.

...