logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
school principals leadership styles organizational health

Do Leadership Styles Influence Organizational Health? A Study in Educational Organizations

Mustafa Toprak , Bulent Inandi , Ahmet Levent Colak

This research aims to investigate the effect of leadership styles of school principals on organizational health. Causal-comparative research model was.


This research aims to investigate the effect of leadership styles of school principals on organizational health. Causal-comparative research model was used to analyze the relationships between leadership types and organizational health. For data collection, a Likert type Multifactor Leadership scale questionnaire and Organizational Health scale were administered to 151 teachers working primary and secondary schools in Osmaniye city. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis method. Findings of this study indicated significant relationships between school principals' leadership styles and health of schools, that leadership style of school leaders influence organizational health level of a school. Transformational leadership style was also found out to be closely related to a healthy school environment while transactional leadership style is negatively correlated with organizational health. Individual consideration, inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and intellectual stimulation sub-dimensions are found to effective in the formation of organizational health. In the light of the findings, some recommendations were also presented.

Keywords: School principals, leadership styles, organizational health

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Adair, J. (2005). Kiskirtici liderlik (Cev. P. Ozaner). Bursa: ALTEO.

Akbaba, S. (1997). Ortaogretim okullarinin orgut sagligi (Yayimlanmamis Doktora Tezi). Ankara University, Ankara.

Akbaba-Altun, S. (2001). Orgut sagligi. Ankara: Nobel.

Akdogan, E. (2002). Ogretim elemanlarinin algiladiklari liderlik stilleri ile is doyum duzeyleri arasindaki iliski (Unpublished Master Thesis). Marmara University, Istanbul.

Aldoory, L., & Toth, E. (2004). Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles. Journal of Public Relations Research, 16, 157–183.

Avolio, B.J., Waldman, D.A.,& Yammarino, J. (1991). Leading in the 1990s: Thefour I’s transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training,15(4), 9-16.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. NY: Free.

Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and stogdill’s handbook of leadership: theory, research and managerial applications. Newyork: Free Pres.

Bass, B.M.(1997). Personal selling and transactional/ transformational leadership. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management,17(3), 19-28.

Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14, 21-27.

Bottiani, J.H., Bradshaw, C. P., Mendelson, T. (2014). Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: The role of school organizational health and staff burnout. Journal of School Psychology, 52, 567-582.

Burns J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Buyukozturk, S., Cakmak, E.K., Akgun, O.E., Karadeniz, S. and Demirel, F. (2008). Bilimsel Arastirma Yontemleri. 2.Baski, Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Can, H. (1992).Organizasyon and yonetim. Ankara: Adim.

Celep, C. (2004). Donusumsel liderlik. Ankara: Ani.

Celep, C. and Mete, Y. A. (2005). Egitim orgutlerinin orgutsel sagligi ile ogretmenlerin orgutsel adanmisliklari arasinda iliski. XIV. Ulusal Egitim Bilimleri Kongresi,28-30 Eylul 2005 (syf. 148-152).Denizli: Pamukkale University.

Cemaloglu, N. (2007). Okul yoneticilerinin liderlik stillerinin orgut sagligi uzerindeki etkisi. Turkiye Sosyal Arastirmalar Dergisi, 11(2), 165-194.

Celik, V. (2007). Egitimsel Liderlik.Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Ergeneli, A. (2006). Orgutsel Davranis And Yonetim Psikolojisi. Istanbul: Beta.

Ekuma, K. J. (2014). Transformational Leadership: Implications for Organizational Competitive Advantage. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 4(1), 276-287.

Fliegner, H. R. (1984). School leadership and organizational health: A Simulated Teaching Unit. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(6), 889.

Fraenkel, J.R., & Norman, E.W. (2008). How to design and evaluate research in education. 7th Edition, Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Geyer, A.L., & Steyrer, J.M. (1998). Transformational leadership and objective performance inbanks. Applied Psychology, 47(3), 397-420.

Hater, J.J.,& Bass, B.M. (1988). Superiors’ evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied psychology, 73(4), 695-702.

Howell, J.M., & Avolio, B.J. (1993). Transformational leadership,transactional leadership, locus of control and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891-902.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools / healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Newbury Park: SAGE.

Hoy, W., & Miksel, C. (2005). Educational administration: Theory, research and practice. 7th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional Leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5),755-768.

Karip, E. (1998). Donusumcu liderlik. Kuram and uygulamada egitim yonetimi, 4(4), 443-465.

Karasar, N. (1998). Bilimsel arastirma yontemi. 8. Basim, Ankara: Nobel.

Karaman, A. (1999). Profesyonel yoneticilerde guc kullanimi. Istanbul: Turkmen Kitabevi.