logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
entrepreneurial self efficacy career adaptability entrepreneurial intention

Effect of College Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy on Entrepreneurial Intention: Career Adaptability as a Mediating Variable

Xiaoping Qiao , Jian-Hao Hua

The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy, career adaptability, and entrepreneu.


The aim of this study is to explore the relationship among college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy, career adaptability, and entrepreneurial intention. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior(TPB), this study adopted the entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale, career adaptability scale and entrepreneurial intention scale to investigate 1039 college students from a university in ShanDong province, China. The results indicated the following: (a) entrepreneurial self-efficacy of college student significantly and positively affected entrepreneurial intention; (b) entrepreneurial self-efficacy of college student significantly and positively affected career adaptability; (c) career adaptability significantly and positively affected entrepreneurial intention; and (d) career adaptability partially mediated the effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention. The results of this study can serve as a reference for universities wishing to implement career education and provide entrepreneurship guidance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy, career adaptability, entrepreneurial intention.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes50(2), 179-211.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology51(6), 1173.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review13(3), 442-453.

Blustein, D. L. (1989). The role of goal instability and career self-efficacy in the career exploration process. Journal of Vocational Behavior35(2), 194-203.

Bosma, N., Acs, Z., Autio, E., Coduras, A., & Levie, J. (2009). Global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) 2008 executive report. Babson Park, MA: Babson College and Global Entrepreneurship Research Consortium.

Carr, J. C., & Sequeira, J. M. (2007). Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of Business Research60(10), 1090-1098.

Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing13(4), 295-316.

Clegg, S. (1990). Modern organizations: Organization studies in the postmodern world. London, England: Sage.

De Guzman, A. B., & Choi, K. O. (2013). The relations of employability skills to career adaptability among technical school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior82(3), 199-207.

De Noble, A. F., Jung, D., & Ehrlich, S. B. (1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: The development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial action. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research1999(1), 73-87.

Freling, T. H., & Forbes, L. P. (2005). An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect. Journal of Product & Brand Management14(7), 404-413.

Gao, J., Lin Y., Cui J., & Wen, Z. (2018). Future work self salience and proactive career behavior: a moderated mediation model. Psychological Exploration, 38(5), 475-480.

Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review10(4), 696-706.

Grundstén, H. (2004). Entrepreneurial intentions and the entrepreneurial environment: A study of technology-based new venture creation. Helsinki University of Technology.

Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., & Bhawe, N. M. (2008). The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology93(5), 1053-1070.

Hindle, K., & Rushworth, S. (2000). Yellow pages global entrepreneurship monitor (gem) australia 2000. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.

Hirschi, A. (2009). Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior74(2), 145-155.

Hisrich, R., Langan-Fox, J., & Grant, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology. American Psychologist62(6), 575.

Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing21(6), 866-885.

Krueger Jr, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice18(3), 91-104.

Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing15(5-6), 411-432.

Krueger, N. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice18(1), 5-21.

Kuratko, D. F. (2003). Entrepreneurship education: Emerging trends and challenges for the 21st century. White Paper, US Association of Small Business Education22, 2003.Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Der Foo, M., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing26(1), 124-136.

Leroy, H., Maes, J., Meuleman, M., Sels, L., & Debrulle, J. (2009). Gender effect on entreprenurial intentions: A TPB multi-group analysis at factor and indicator level. In Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Date: 2009/08/07-2009/08/11, Location: Chicago (USA)

Li, X., Hou, Z. J. & Feng, M. (2013). Relationships between parental career expectation, proactive personality, career adaptability and career decision-making difficulty among Chinese college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21(2), 263-267.

Liang, M. H. & Yi, L. F., (2017). The relations of career adaptability with entrepreneurial self-efficiency and entrepreneurial intention among university students. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 15(3), 366-371.

Logan, J. R., Alba, R. D., & Stults, B. J. (2003). Enclaves and entrepreneurs: Assessing the payoff for immigrants and minorities. International Migration Review37(2), 344-388.

Luzzo, D. A. (1993). Value of career-decision-making self-efficacy in predicting career-decision-making attitudes and skills. Journal of Counseling Psychology40(2), 194-199.

Matthews, C. H., & Moser, S. B. (1996). A longitudinal investigation of the impact of family background. Journal of Small Business Management34(2), 29-43.

Niles, S. G., & Sowa, C. J. (1992). Mapping the nomological network of career self‐efficacy. The Career Development Quarterly41(1), 13-21.

Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology16(4), 353-385.

Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life‐span, life‐space theory. The Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 247-259.

Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. Career development and counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work1(1), 42-70.Savickas, M. L. (2013). Career construction theory and practice. Career development and counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work2(1), 144-180.

Savickas, M. L., Briddick, W. C., & Watkins Jr, C. E. (2002). The relation of career maturity to personality type and social adjustment. Journal of Career Assessment10(1), 24-49.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1936). Review of Keynes’s general theory. Journal of the American Statistical Association31(196), 791-795.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review25(1), 217-226.

Super, D. E., & Kidd, J. M. (1979). Vocational maturity in adulthood: Toward turning a model into a measure. Journal of Vocational Behavior14(3), 255-270.

Super, D. E., & Knasel, E. G. (1981). Career development in adulthood: Some theoretical problems and a possible solution. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling9(2), 194-201.

Thatcher, S. M., & Patel, P. C. (2012). Group faultlines: A review, integration, and guide to future research. Journal of Management38(4), 969-1009.

Thompson, E. R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice33(3), 669-694.

Tolentino, L. R., Sedoglavich, V., Lu, V. N., Garcia, P. R. J. M., & Restubog, S. L. D. (2014). The role of career adaptability in predicting entrepreneurial intentions: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Vocational Behavior85(3), 403-412.

Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self–efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387-406.

Wilson, F., Marlino, D., & Kickul, J. (2004). Our entrepreneurial future: Examining the diverse attitudes and motivations of teens across gender and ethnic identity. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship9(3), 177.

Yang, S. H., Tien, H. L., Wu, H. L., & Chu, H. (2015). The relationship among career self-efficacy, career adaptability and work adjustment of adult workers in Taiwan. Chinese Journal of Guidance and Counseling 37(1), 21-42.Zacher, H. (2014). Career adaptability predicts subjective career success above and beyond personality traits and core self-evaluations. Journal of Vocational Behavior84(1), 21-30.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology90(6), 1265-1772.