logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
social media addiction daily average internet usage period high school student

Investigation of Social Media Addiction of High School Students

Ozlem Afacan , Neslihan Ozbek

The aim of this study was to investigate the social media addiction of high school students in terms of some variables such as age, class, type of sch.


The aim of this study was to investigate the social media addiction of high school students in terms of some variables such as age, class, type of school, gender and daily average internet usage period. Survey method was used in the study. “Social Media Addiction Scale” (SMAS) developed by Tutgun-Unal and “Personal Information Form” prepared by the researcher were used as data collection tools. The data were obtained from a total of 596 students studying in three high schools with different academic achievement level in Kirsehir in Turkey. No significant difference was found in terms of gender variable. When the total scores of high school students on Social Media Addiction Scale are examined, it is determined that the students have “low level of addiction”. In addition, it was found that there was a significant relationship between high school students' daily average internet usage time and social media addiction.

Keywords: Social media addiction, daily average internet usage period, high school student

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Alabi, O. F. (2012). A survey of Facebook addiction level among selected Nigerian University undergraduates. New Media and Mass Communication, 10, 70–80.

Al Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths M. D. (2019). The association between Facebook addiction and depression: A pilot survey study among Bangladeshi students.  Psychiatry Research, 271, 628-633. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.039

Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim T., Brunborg, G. S., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a Facebook addiction scale. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 501-517.  doi:10.2466/02.09.18.PR0.110.2.501-517.

Andreassen, C. S., & Pallesen, S. (2014). Social network site addiction-an overview. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20, 4053–4061. doi:10.2174/13816128113199990616

Akkus, A., Afacan, O., & Ozbek, N. (2018). Fen bilgisi ile rehberlik ve psikolojik danismanlik ogretmen adaylarinin sosyal medya bagimliliginin incelenmesi [Investigation of social media addiction of science teacher and psychological counseling and guidance candidates. In T. Yucehan & U. Saray (Eds.), II. International Scientific and Vocational Studies Congress (Bilmes 2018) Full Paper Book, (pp. 3-11). Kirikkale, Turkey: Kirikkale University. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H6v_aUc43SZEO0lAU3NmJGEWp8RfTtPB/view

Balci, S., & Golcu, A. (2013). Facebook addiction among university students in Turkey: “Selcuk University Example”. Selcuk University Journal of Studies in Turcology, 34, 255-278.

Bedir, A. (2016). The effect of using social media on collage academic success and attitude (Unpublished master’s thesis). Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Buyukozturk, S., Cakmak, E. K., Akgun, O. E., Karadeniz, S., & Demirel, F. (2017). Scientific research methods (21st ed.). Ankara, Turkey: Pegem Akademi.

Cakmak, V. (2014).The effect of communication apprehension on the use of social media: A case study on university students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Cam, E., & Isbulan, O. (2012).  A New addiction for teacher candidates: Social networks. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), 11(3), 14-19. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ989195.pdf

Deniz, L., & Gurultu, E. (2018).High School Students’ Social Media Addiction. Kastamonu Education Journal, 26(2), 355-367. doi:10.24106/kefdergi.389780

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., L., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook friends: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143–1168.   doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x

Griffiths, M. D. (2000). Internet addiction: Time to be taken seriously? Addiction Research, 8(5), 413–418.  doi:10.3109/16066350009005587

Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Facebook addiction: Concerns, criticism, and recommendations: A response to Andreassen and colleagues. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 518–520. doi:10.2466/01.07.18.PR0.110.2.518520

Gul, S., & Diken, E. H. (2018). An investigation of the preservice science teachers’ social media addictions. E-Kafkas Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 41-50.  doi:10.30900/kafkasegt.386531

Gunlu, A., & A. Ceyhan, A. (2017). Investigating adolescents’ behaviors on the internet and problematic internet usage. The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 4(1), 75-117. doi:10.15805/addicta.2017.4.1.0016

Gurultu, E. (2016). Investigation of the relation between high school students' social media addiction and academic procrastination behavior (Unpublished master’s thesis). Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Jelenchick, L., Eickhoff, J. C., & Moreno, M. A. (2013). ‘Facebook depression?’ Social networking site use and depression in older adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 128–130.

Kahraman, A. B. (2013). Non-country Facebook: University youth and Facebook use. In B. Ozcetin, G. Goker, G. Bayraktutan, I. Sayimer, & T. Comu (Eds.), Yeni medya calismalari: kuram, yontem, uygulama ve siyasal i. ulusal kongresi kongre kitabi [The Proceedings of New Media Studies: Theory, Method, Practice and Policy I. National Congress] (pp.122-131). Istanbul, Turkey: Alternatif Bilisim. Kocaeli, Turkey. Retrieved from https://ekitap.alternatifbilisim.org/files/yeni_medya_calismalari-1_kongre_kitabi.pdf

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003

Karasar, N. (2015). Scientific research methods (28th ed.). Ankara, Turkey: Nobel.

Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. C., Chen, S. H., & Yen, C.F. (2005). Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(4), 273-277.

Mazman, S. G. (2009). Adoption process of social network and their usage in educational context (Unpublished master’s thesis).Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Mingle, J., & Adams, M. (2015). Social media network participation and academic performance in senior high schools in Ghana. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1286.

Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2004). Internet addiction in students: A cause of concern. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 6(6), 653-656.  doi:10.1089/109493103322725441

Ryan, T., Chester, A., Reece, J., & Xenos, S. (2014). The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3(3), 133-148. doi:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.016

Starcevic, V. (2013). Is internet addiction a useful concept? Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 16–19. doi:10.1177/0004867412461693

Tutgun-Unal, A. (2015). Social media addiction: A research on university students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tutgun-Unal, A., & Deniz, L. (2016). Investigation of social media addiction of university students. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 3(2), 155-181.

Vural, Z. B. A,. & Bat, M. (2010). Social media as a new communication environment: A research on Ege University faculty of communication. Journal of Yasar University, 20(5), 3348-3382.

Wei, T., & Wang, C. (2011). The characteristics of social networks of China’s college students (In Chinese). Modern Management, 1, 219-223.  doi:10.4236/mm.2011.13039

Wilson, K., Fornasier, S., & White, K. M. (2010). Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13(2), 173 177. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0094

Wu, P. C. (2013). Addictive behavior in relation to the happy farm Facebook application. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal41(4), 539–554. doi:10.2224/sbp.2013.41.4.539 

Wu, A. M., Cheung, V. I., Ku, L., & Hung, E. P. (2013). Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(3), 160–166. doi:10.1556/JBA.2.2013.006

Yilmazsoy, B., & Kahraman, M. (2017). An analysis of the relationship between social media addiction and social media use of university students for educational purposes: Facebook example. Journal of Instructional Technologies & Teacher Education, 6(1), 9-20.