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theory of planned behavior value belief norm theory structural equation modeling conditional process analysis

An Integrated Model Approach: Exploring the Energy Literacy and Values of Lower Secondary Students in Japan

Yutaka Akitsu , Keiichi N. Ishihara

Energy literacy is a minimum required capacity for developing a sustainable society that participates in and discusses on energy and environmental (EE.


Energy literacy is a minimum required capacity for developing a sustainable society that participates in and discusses on energy and environmental (EE) issues. Understanding the energy literacy structure is of significant importance for providing effective energy education to promote people’s awareness of EE issues. In this article, an energy literacy structural model integrated with the Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory was investigated for 1070 lower secondary students (ages 13-15) in Japan. Structural equation modeling uncovered that the awareness of consequences is the most powerful predictor for the causality between basic energy knowledge and energy-saving behavior through the attitude toward the energy-saving behavior. A conditional process analysis elucidated that (1) the conditional effect of basic energy knowledge on the awareness of consequences depends on scientific literacy, critical thinking ability, and environmental worldview, and (2) the conditional direct and indirect effects in the mediation model of awareness of consequences on the attitude toward energy-saving behavior through the ascription of responsibility depend on environmental worldview or values and family discussion of energy-related issues. The energy literacy model proposed provides a theoretical contribution to the development of an effective energy education program.

Keywords: Theory of planned behavior, value-belief-norm theory, structural equation modeling, conditional process analysis

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