Research Article
Conceptualization, Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Learners’ Perceptions of their Active Learning Strategies within an Active Learning Context

Ronnie H. Shroff , Fridolin S. T. Ting, Wai Hung Lam, Tomasz Cecot, Jian Yang, Lap Ki Chan


APA 7th edition
Shroff, R.H., Ting, F.S.T., Lam, W.H., Cecot, T., Yang, J., & Chan, L.K. (2021). Conceptualization, Development And Validation Of An Instrument To Measure Learners’ Perceptions Of Their Active Learning Strategies Within An Active Learning Context. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 7(1), 201-223. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.7.1.201

Harvard
Shroff R.H., Ting F.S.T., Lam W.H., Cecot T., Yang J., and Chan L.K. 2021 'Conceptualization, Development And Validation Of An Instrument To Measure Learners’ Perceptions Of Their Active Learning Strategies Within An Active Learning Context', International Journal of Educational Methodology, 7(1), pp. 201-223.
Chicago 16th edition
Shroff Ronnie H., Ting Fridolin S. T., Lam Wai Hung, Cecot Tomasz, Yang Jian, and Chan Lap Ki. "Conceptualization, Development And Validation Of An Instrument To Measure Learners’ Perceptions Of Their Active Learning Strategies Within An Active Learning Context," International Journal of Educational Methodology 7, no. 1 (2021): 201-223. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.7.1.201

Abstract

This study describes the development and validation of a psychometrically-sound instrument, the Active Learning Strategies Inventory (ALSI), designed to measure learners’ perceptions of their active learning strategies within an active learning context. Active learning encompasses a broad range of pedagogical practices and instructional methods that connect with an individual learner's active learning strategies. In order to fulfill the study's goals, a conceptual framework on learners’ active learning strategies was developed and proposed, drawing upon the research literature on active learning. The development and construct validation of the Active Learning Strategies Inventory (ALSI), based on the conceptual and methodological underpinnings, involved identifying five scales of learners’ active learning strategies: engagement, cognitive processing, orientation to learning, readiness to learn and motivational orientation. An item pool of 20 items was generated following an extensive review of the literature, standardized card sorting procedures including confirmatory factor analysis and scale validation of a pilot (n = 407) survey. The ALSI scale demonstrated strong internal consistency and reliability with a Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.81 to 0.87. High item loading scores from the factor analysis provided initial support for the instrument's construct validity of the five-factor model. The ALSI scale provides a reliable and valid method for researchers and academicians who wish to measure learners' perceptions of their active learning strategies within an active learning context. Finally, we discuss the implications and address the limitations and directions for future research.

Keywords: Active learning, instrument development, engagement, cognitive processing, orientation to learning.


References

Abbott, R., Mickail, T., Richards, T., Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S. E., Beers, S., & Berninger, V. (2017). Understanding interest and self-efficacy in the reading and writing of students with persisting specific learning disabilities during middle childhood and early adolescence. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 3(1), 41-64. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.3.1.41

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.

Atkinson, J. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Van Nostrand.

Auerbach, A. J. J., & Andrews, T. C. (2018). Pedagogical knowledge for active-learning instruction in large undergraduate biology courses: a large-scale qualitative investigation of instructor thinking. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(19), 2-25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0112-9

Aydede, M. N., & Kesercioğlu, T. (2010). The effect of active learning applications on students’ views about scientific knowledge. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3783-3786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.589

Baeten, M., Dochy, F., & Struyven, K. (2013). The effects of different learning environments on students’ motivation for learning and their achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 484-501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02076.x

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory of aggression. Journal of Communication, 28(3), 12-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1978.tb01621.x

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588-606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Berlyne, D. E. (1966). Curiosity and exploration. Science, 153(3731), 25-33.

Bohrnstedt, G. W. (1970). Reliability and validity assessment in attitude measurement. In G. F. Summers (Ed.), Attitude measurement (pp. 80-99). Rand-McNally.

Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. ERIC Digest. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340272.pdf

Bonwell, C., & Sutherland, T. E. (1996). The active learning continuum: Choosing activities to engage students in the classroom. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 1996(67), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.37219966704

Brown, S. C. (2004). Learning across the campus: How college facilitates the development of wisdom. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 134-148. http://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2004.0020

Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21-32.

Bruner, J. S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction (Vol. 59). Harvard University Press.

Bulut, B. (2019). The impact of peer instruction on academic achievements and creative thinking skills of college students. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(3), 503-512. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.3.503

Chan, V. (2001). Readiness for learner autonomy: What do our learners tell us? Teaching in Higher Education, 6(4), 505-518. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510120078045

Chi, M. T., & Wylie, R. (2014). The ICAP framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational Psychologist, 49(4), 219-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2014.965823

Ciraj, A., Vinod, P., & Ramnarayan, K. (2010). Enhancing active learning in microbiology through case based learning: Experiences from an Indian medical school. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 53(4), 729-733. https://doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.72058

Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1(3), 98-101.

Cornwall, M. (1979). Students as teachers: Peer teaching in higher education. University of Amsterdam.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281-302. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957

Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69(9), 970-977. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1374249

Deci, E. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. The Educational Forum, 50(3), 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131728609335764

Dewing, J. (2010). Moments of movement: Active learning and practice development. Nurse Education in Practice, 10(1), 22-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2009.02.010

deWinstanley, P. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2002). Successful lecturing: Presenting information in ways that engage effective processing. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2002(89), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.44

Dickson, M., & Ladefoged, S. E. (2017). Introducing active learning pedagogy into a technical and vocational education and training academy in Kurdistan, Iraq. International Review of Education, 63(5), 679-702. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-017-9660-3

Doise, W., Mugny, G., & Perret‐Clermont, A. N. (1975). Social interaction and the development of cognitive operations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5(3), 367-383. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420050309

Dunlap, J.C., & Grabinger, R.C. (1996). Rich environments for active learning in the higher education classroom. In B.G. Wilson (Ed.), Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design (pp. 65-82). Educational Technology Publications.

Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1040-1048. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109-132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153

Ellerton, N. F. (2013). Engaging pre-service middle-school teacher-education students in mathematical problem posing: development of an active learning framework. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83(1), 87-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-012-9449-z

Ernst, H., & Colthorpe, K. (2008). Expanding voluntary active-learning opportunities for pharmacy students in a respiratory physiology module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(2), 1-6.

Faust, J. L., & Paulson, D. R. (1998). Active learning in the college classroom. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 9(2), 3-24.

Fern, V., Anstrom, K., & Silox, B. (1993). Active learning and the limited english proficient student. Directions in Language and Education, 1(2), 1-10.

Festus, A. B. (2013). Activity-based learning strategies in the mathematics classrooms. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(13), 8-14.

Finelli, C. J., Klinger, A., & Budny, D. D. (2001). Strategies for improving the classroom environment. Journal of Engineering Education, 90(4), 491-497. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2001.tb00630.x

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. R. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231-235). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Fritz, M. (2002). Using learning styles inventories to promote active learning. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 32(2), 183-188. https://doi.org/10.1080/10790195.2002.10850297

Gardner, H. (1987). Developing the spectrum of human intelligences. Harvard Educational Review, 57(2), 187-193.

Georgiou, H., & Sharma, M. (2015). Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences? European Journal of Physics, 36(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/36/1/015020

Ginsburg, M. (2010). Improving educational quality through active-learning pedagogies: A comparison of five case studies. Educational Research, 1(3), 62-74.

Gleason, B. L., Peeters, M. J., Resman-Targoff, B. H., Karr, S., McBane, S., Kelley, K., Thomas, T., & Denetclaw, T. H. (2011). An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(9), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe759186

Gormally, C., Brickman, P., Hallar, B., & Armstrong, N. (2009). Effects of inquiry-based learning on students’ science literacy skills and confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2009.030216

Greek, C. E. (1995). Using active learning strategies in teaching criminology: A personal account. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 6(1), 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511259500083381

Hailkari, T., Virtanen, V., Vesalainen, M., & Postareff, L. (2021). Student perspectives on how different elements of constructive alignment support active learning. Active Learning in Higher Education. Advance Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787421989160

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5). Prentice Hall.

Hamdy, H. (2015). Authentic learning in health professions education: Problem-based learning, team-based learning, task-based learning, case-based learning and the blend. In K. A. Bin Abdulrahman, S. Mennin, R. Harden & C. Kennedy (Eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Medical Education (pp. 168-183). Routledge.

Hanson, S., & Moser, S. (2003). Reflections on a discipline-wide project: developing active learning modules on the human dimensions of global change. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 27(1), 17-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309826032000062441

Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4

Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1004

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365-379. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09339057

Karamustafaoglu, O. (2009). Active learning strategies in physics teaching. Energy Education Science and Technology, 1(1), 27-50.

Karge, B. D., Phillips, K. M., Jessee, T., & McCabe, M. (2011). Effective strategies for engaging adult learners. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 8(12), 53-56. https://doi.org/10.19030/tlc.v8i12.6621

Keyser, M. W. (2000). Active learning and cooperative learning: understanding the difference and using both styles effectively. Research Strategies, 17(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0734-3310(00)00022-7

Kolb, D. A., & Fry, R. (1975). Towards an applied theory of experiential learning. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group processes. Wiley.

Krapp, A. (2005). Basic needs and the development of interest and intrinsic motivational orientations. Learning and Instruction, 15(5), 381-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.07.007

Kwan, Y. W., & Wong, A. F. (2015). Effects of the constructivist learning environment on students’ critical thinking ability: Cognitive and motivational variables as mediators. International Journal of Educational Research, 70, 68-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.02.006

Lam, T., & Klockars, A. J. (1982). Anchor point effects on the equivalence of questionnaire items. Journal of Educational Measurement, 19(4), 317-322.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, C. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.

Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge University Press.

Leonard, W. J., Dufresne, R. J., & Mestre, J. P. (1996). Using qualitative problem‐solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems. American Journal of Physics, 64(12), 1495-1503. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.18409

Li, H., Liu, C., Sun, J., Zhang, C., Sun, H., Wang, C., & Chen, J. (2017). Application of task-based learning mode in the teaching of clinical pharmacology. In C. Zhang (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Biotechnology & Medical Science (pp. 380-385) World Scientific. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813145870_0054

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Prentice Hall.

Marrone, M., Taylor, M., & Hammerle, M. (2018). Do international students appreciate active learning in lectures? Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 22, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v22i0.1334

Maxwell, A. E. (1970). Basic statistics in behavioural research. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

McCarthy, J. P., & Anderson, L. (2000). Active learning techniques versus traditional teaching styles: Two experiments from history and political science. Innovative Higher Education, 24(4), 279-294. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IHIE.0000047415.48495.05

McClusky, H. Y. (1963). The course of the adult life span. In W. C. Hallenbeck (Ed.), Psychology of adults (pp. 10-20). Adult Education Association of the USA.

McFadden, C. (2013). Advancing active learning with adult learners. In V. X. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education (pp. 778-794). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-4249-2.ch045

Meng, Z., Huang, X., Lan, J., & Huang, Y. (2015). Task-based learning and team-based learning methods in the class of ethnic medicine. Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research, 14(6), 580-583. https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-1485.2015.06.010

Michael, J. (2006). Where's the evidence that active learning works? Advances in Physiology Education, 30(4), 159-167. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00053.2006

Moore, G., & Benbasat, I. (1991). Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Information Systems Research, 2(3), 192-222. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2.3.192

Nagda, B. A., Gurin, P., & Lopez, G. E. (2003). Transformative pedagogy for democracy and social justice. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(2), 165-191. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613320308199

Newmann, F. M., & Wehlage, G. G. (1993). Five standards of authentic instruction. Educational Leadership, 50(7), 8-12.

Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill.

Nyman, R. (2017). Interest and engagement: Perspectives on mathematics in the classroom. Educational Research, 59(6), 623-637.

Ocker, R., & Yaverbaum, G. J. (2002). Collaborative learning environments: Exploring student attitudes and satisfaction in face-to-face and asynchronous computer conferencingsettings. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12(4), 427-448.

Oudeyer, P.-Y., Gottlieb, J., & Lopes, M. (2016). Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: Theory and applications in educational technologies. Progress in Brain Research, 229, 257-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.05.005

Page, M. (1990). Active learning: Historical and contemporary perspectives [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].University of Massachusetts.

Piaget, J. (1963). The child’s conception of the world. Adams and Company.

Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176-186.

Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31(6), 459-470. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(99)00015-4

Pintrich, P. R., & Schrauben, B. (1992). Students’ motivational beliefs and their cognitive engagement in classroom academic tasks. In D. H. Schunk & J. L. Meece (Eds.), Student perceptions in the classroom (Vol. 7, pp. 149-183). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Powell, E. (2005). Conceptualising and facilitating active learning: Teachers’ video‐stimulated reflective dialogues. Reflective Practice, 6(3), 407-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623940500220202

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00809.x

Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. Routledge.

Ratwatte, H. (1999). Orientation to learning and previous learning experiences: Are they factors that affect learning in the distance mode? OUSL Journal, 2, 94-124. https://doi.org/10.4038/ouslj.v2i0.366

Ren, S., McKenzie, F. D., Chaturvedi, S. K., Prabhakaran, R., Yoon, J., Katsioloudis, P. J., & Garcia, H. (2015). Design and comparison of immersive interactive learning and instructional techniques for 3D virtual laboratories. Presence, 24(2), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1162/PRES_a_00221

Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The flipped classroom: An opportunity to engage millennial students through active learning strategies. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences, 105(2), 44-49.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Salomon, G. (1997). Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations. Cambridge University Press.

Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2005). Collaborative learning in asynchronous discussion groups: What about the impact on cognitive processing? Computers in Human Behavior, 21(6), 957-975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.02.025

Schiefele, U. (1991). Interest, learning and motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26(3-4), 299-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653136

Schiefele, U., & Krapp, A. (1996). Topic interest and free recall of expository text. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(96)90030-8

Schraw, G., & Lehman, S. (2001). Situational interest: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 23-52. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009004801455

Scott, S. (2011). Contemplating a constructivist stance for active learning within music education. Arts Education Policy Review, 112(4), 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/10632913.2011.592469

Shroff, R. H. (2010). Examining individual students’ perceptions of curiosity utilizing a blend of online and face-to-face discussions: A case study. In E. M. W. Ng (Ed.), Comparative blended learning practices and environments (pp. 125-145). Information Science Reference.

Stanberry, M. L. (2018). Active learning: A case study of student engagement in college calculus. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 49(6), 959-969. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2018.1440328

Tandogan, R. O., & Orhan, A. (2007). The effects of problem-based active learning in science education on students' academic achievement, attitude and concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3(1), 71-81. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/75375

Taylor, B., & Kroth, M. (2009). A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study: A model for testing methodologies for pedagogy or andragogy. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9(2), 42-56.

Taylor, E., Morgan, A., & Gibbs, G. (1981). The 'orientation' of Open University foundation students to their studies. Teaching at a Distance, 20, 3-12.

Tyler, F. T. (1964). Issues related to readiness to learn. In E. R. Hilgard (Ed.), Theories of learning and instruction (pp. 210-239). University of Chicago Press.

van Hout-Wolters, B., Simons, R.-J., & Volet, S. (2000). Active learning: Self-directed learning and independent work. In R. J. Simons, J. van der Linden, & T. Duffy (Eds.), New learning (pp. 21–36). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47614-2_2

Vygotsky, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.

Wade, S. E., Schraw, G., Buxton, W., & Hayes, M. J. (1993). Seduction of the strategic reader: Effects of interest on strategies and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 28(2), 92-114. https://doi.org/10.2307/747885

Wolff, M., Wagner, M. J., Poznanski, S., Schiller, J., & Santen, S. (2015). Not another boring lecture: engaging learners with active learning techniques. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 48(1), 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.09.010

Young, M. R. (2005). The motivational effects of the classroom environment in facilitating self-regulated learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 27(1), 25-40. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475304273346

Zepke, N., & Leach, L. (2010). Improving student engagement: Ten proposals for action. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(3), 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787410379680

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.81.3.329