logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

RHAPSODE LTD
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
RHAPSODE LTD
Headquarters
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
mathematical critical thinking skill teaching model the 4c skills

Development of the 4C Teaching Model to Improve Students’ Mathematical Critical Thinking Skills

Irham , Ismail Tolla , Baso Jabu

This study aims to develop a learning model based on 4C skills to improve high school students’ mathematical critical thinking skills. Research .

T

This study aims to develop a learning model based on 4C skills to improve high school students’ mathematical critical thinking skills. Research & development is the design used in this research by applying Plomp’s development theory which consists of three phases, namely needs analysis, design and implementation, and evaluation. This research was conducted at Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 2 Parepare, South Sulawesi, Indonesia involving five experts, four teachers, and 20 students. Data collection and analysis were carried out qualitatively and quantitatively. Analysis of interviews’ data and observations qualitatively with the thematic analysis technique. We also analyse data from validation sheets, questionnaires, and mathematical essay tests with the help of SPSS 20.00. The results show that students and lecturers need a learning model to improve mathematical critical thinking skills. In addition, other findings stated that the learning model developed was proven to be valid, practical, and effective to be used in general. Developing your learning model can further improve students' learning outcomes and mathematical critical thinking skills because they are designed based on the actual needs and problems. For this reason, a teacher must be able to design his learning model.

Keywords: Mathematical critical thinking skill, teaching model, the 4C skills.

cloud_download PDF
Cite
Article Metrics
Views
612
Download
988
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
2

References

Abdel-Maksoud, B. M., & Saknidy, S. (2016). A new approach for training needs assessment. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 4(2), 102–109. https://doi.org/10.4236/jhrss.2016.42012

Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1994). Observational techniques. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 377-392). SAGE

Adrianto, S. (2019). Effectiveness of cooperative learning model type stad-based on skills 4c-on education and training for strengthening of principals of batch 18 in the development agency of human resources of Jakarta Province 2019. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 4(12), 71–82. https://bit.ly/3bm7tba   

Agbi, A., & Yuangsoi, P. (2022). Enhancement of critical thinking skills in students using mobile-blended learning with a collaborative inquiry-based approach. Humanities, Art and Social Sciences Studies, 22(1), 9-20. https://doi.org/10.14456/hasss.2022.2

Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Cheng, D. (2015). Developing critical thinking skills from dispositions to abilities: Mathematics education from early childhood to high school. Creative Education, 6(4), 455–462. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2015.64045

Angelina, P. (2018). Developing task-based learning model for language teaching media course in English language education study program. Language and Language Teaching Journal, 21(1), 36-45. https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.210104   

Angkowati, J. (2020). Improving 4c skills and student learning outcomes through device assisted creative problem solving (cps) learning models on static electricity topics. Journal of Advances in Education and Philosophy, 4(11), 463–468. https://doi.org/10.36348/jaep.2020.v04i11.005

Arisoy, B., & Aybek, B. (2021). The effects of subject-based critical thinking education in mathematics on students’ critical thinking skills and virtues. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 92, 99–120. https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2021.92.6

Ariyana, I. K. S. (2020). The need analysis of elementary school mathematics learning outcomes test based on hots characteristics in form of multiple choice. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Missio, 12(2), 87–98. https://doi.org/10.36928/jpkm.v12i2.453

Artuz, J. K. A., & Roble, D. B. (2021). Developing students’ critical thinking skills in mathematics using online-process oriented guided inquiry learning (O-POGIL). American Journal of Educational Research, 9(7), 404–409. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-9-7-2

Biasi, V., Vincenzo, C. D., & Patrizi, N. (2018). Cognitive strategies, motivation to learning, levels of wellbeing and risk of drop-out: An empirical longitudinal study for qualifying ongoing university guidance service. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 8(2), 79–91. https://doi.org/10.2478/jesr-2018-0019

Bokiev, D., & Ismail, L. (2021). Malaysian ESL teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the use of music and songs in second language teaching. The Qualitative Report, 26(5), 1497–1521. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2021.4350

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Brunning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., Norby, M. M., & Ronning, R. (2004). Cognitive psychology and instruction. Meril Prentice Hall.

Buhaerah, B. (2015). Model pembelajaran matematika yang mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis [Mathematics learning model that develops critical thinking skills] [Unpublished master's thesis]. Universitas Negeri Malang

Cansoy, R., Parlar, H., & Polatcan, M. (2018). Teacher candidates’ critical thinking tendencies research in Turkey: A content analysis. Universal Journal of Education Research, 6(9), 1974–1980. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.060916

Carlson, J. A. (2010). Avoiding traps in memberchecking. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1102-1113. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2010.1332

Chusni, M. M., Saputro, S., Rahadjo, S. B., & Suranto, S. (2021). Student's critical thinking skills through discovery learning model using e-learning on environmental change subject matter. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(3), 1123-1135. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.3  

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203771587

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Five qualitative approaches to inquiry. In J. W. Creswell (Eds.), Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (pp. 53-84). Sage Publication

Cresswell, C., & Speelman, C. P. (2020). Does mathematics training lead to better logical thinking and reasoning? A cross-sectional assessment from students to professors. PLOS One, 15(7), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236153

Demiral, U., & Cepni, S. (2018). Examining argumentation skills of preservice science teachers in terms of their critical thinking and context knowledge levels: An example using GMOs. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 15(3), 128–151. https://bit.ly/3OeyM5w

Devi, A. P., Musthafa, B., & Gustine, G. G. G. (2016). Using cooperative learning in teaching critical thinking in reading. English Review: Journal of English Education, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v4i1.310

Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2017). Exploring the impact of online peer-editing using google docs on EFL learners’ academic writing skills: A mixed methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(9), 787–815. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1363056

Erdem, A. R., & Adiguzel, D. C. (2019). The opinions of primary school teachers on their creative thinking skills. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 80, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2019.80.2

Erdoğan, V. (2019). Integrating 4C skills of 21st century into 4 language skills in EFL classes. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(11), 113–124. https://bit.ly/3OdDrVz

Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. California Academic Press.

Firdaus, F., Kailani, I., Bakar, M. N. B., & Bakry, B. (2015). Developing critical thinking skills of students in mathematics learning. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(3), 226–236. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v9i3.1830

Golpour, F. (2014). Critical thinking and EFL learners’ performance on different writing modes. Pan-Pasific Association of Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 103–119. https://bit.ly/3OjxQgA

Guo, Y. (2017). The influence of social support on the prosocial behavior of college students: The mediating effect based on interpersonal trust. English Language Teaching, 10(12), 158–163. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n12p158

Gupta, K., Sleezer, C. M., & Russ-Eft, D. F. (2007). A practical guide to needs assessment. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Guthrie, K. H. (2019). “Nothing is ever easy”: Parent perceptions of intensity in their gifted adolescent children. The Qualitative Report, 24(8), 2080–2101. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2019.3598  

Halpern, D. F. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of critical thinking instruction. The Journal of General Education, 50(4), 270–286. https://doi.org/10.1353/jge.2001.0024

Hamdu, G., Muiz, D. A., & Silma, G. (2020). 4C’s skills performance assessment in STEM learning in elementary school. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(12), 7668–7675. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.082553

Hamida, S., & Desnita, D. (2021). The validity of contextual-based physics learning videos to improve students’ 4c skills. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 25(2), 175–184. http://ijpsat.ijsht-journals.org

Helaluddin, H., Ahmad, M. A., & Anshari, A. (2020). Need analysis of academic writing teaching model based on process-genre approach: What do they really need? Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(10), 4728–47355. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.081043

Helaluddin, H., Al Aqad, M. H., Wijaya, H., Anwar, J., Nadya, N. L., & Syafryadin, S. (2021). Development and validation of academic writing textbook based on process genre approach for university students. Al-Ishlah: Jurnal Pendidikan, 13(2), 1068–1079. https://doi.org/10.35445/alishlah.v13i2.766

Hidayah, R., Salimi, M., & Susiani, T. S. (2017). Critical thinking skill: Konsep dan indikator penilaian [Critical thinking skill: Concept and assessment indicator]. Jurnal Taman Cendikia, 1(2), 16–19. https://doi.org/10.30738/tc.v1i2.1945

Holguin, B. R., & Morales, J. A. (2014). Materials development in the Colombian context: Some considerations about its benefit and challenges. How: Colombian Journal for Teacher of English, 86(2), 431–468. https://doi.org/10.19183/how.21.2.8

Howard, L. W., Tang, T. L. P., & Austin, J. M. (2015). Teaching critical thinking skills: Ability, motivation, intervention, and the pygmalion effect. Journal of Business Ethics, 128, 133–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2084-0

Irwanto, I., Saputro, A. D., Rohaeti, E., & Prodjosantoso, A. K. (2018). Promoting critical thinking and problem solving skills of preservice elementary teachers through process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL). International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 777–794. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11449a

Islamiyah, M., & Fajri, M. S. A. (2020). Investigating Indonesian master’s students perception of critical thinking in academic writing in a British University. The Qualitative Report, 25(12), 4402–4422. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2020.4058

Ismail, Z., Balakrishnan, M., & Wahid, H. (2016). The integration of 21st century learning framework in the ASIE instructional design model. Journal of Psychology Research, 6(7), 415–425. https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5542/2016.07.004

Janssen, E. M., Mainhard, T., Buisman, R. S. M., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Heijltjes, A. E. G., Van-Peppen, L. M., & Van-Gog, T. (2019). Training higher education teachers’ critical thinking and attitudes towards teaching it. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 58, 310–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.03.007

Jarvis, M. (2005). The psychology of effective teaching and learning. Nelson Thornes.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2007). Cultural globalization and language education. Yale University Press.

Kuntze, S., Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Clarke, D. (2017). Hybrid task design: Connecting learning opportunities related to critical thinking and statistical thinking. ZDM Mathematics Education, 49(6), 923–935. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-017-0874-4

Levin-Goldberg, J. (2012). Teaching generation techX with the 4Cs: Using technology to integrate 21st century skills. Journal of Instructional Research, 1(1), 59–66. https://doi.org/10.9743/jir.2013.8

Mahanal, S., Zubaidah, S., Sumiati, I. D., Sari, T. M., & Ismirawati, N. (2019). Ricosre: A learning model to develop critical thinking skills for students with different academic abilities. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 417–434. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12227a

McCawley, P. F. (2009). Methods for conducting an educational needs assessment: Guidelines for cooperative extension system professionals. University of Idaho.

Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690200100202  

Mustami, M. K., Syamsudduha, S., Safei, S., & Ismail, M. I. (2019). Validity, practically, and effectiveness development of biology textbooks integrated with augument reality on high school students. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 11(2), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2019.098789    

Nieveen, N. (1999). Prototyping to reach product quality. In J. Van Den Akker, R. M. Branch, K. Gustafson & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Design approaches and tool in education and training (pp. 125-135). Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4255-7_10

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847

Nunnez, A., Tellez, M. F., & Castellanos, J. (2012). A framework for materials development: A path for i-service teachers to build up the instructional design of their research project. In A. Nunnez, M. F. Tellez, & J. Castellanos (Eds.), Teacher research on English didactics issues (pp. 17-30). Publicaciones Universidad Externado de Colombia.

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st century learning. https://bit.ly/3xOjFZw

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2010). 21st century knowledge and skills in educator preparation. AACTE.

Phan, H. P. (2010). Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning. Psicothema, 22(2), 284–292. https://bit.ly/3n48xTE  

Plomp, T. (2013). Educational design research: An introduction. Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.

Purwasih, R., Rahimullaily, R., & Suryani, A. I. (2021). Blended learning model in improving 4c abilities of information system students. Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia, 10(4), 742–753. https://doi.org/10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v10i4.30939

Radulovic, L., & Stancic, M. (2017). What is needed to develop critical thinking in school? Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 7(3), 9–25. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.283

Rahmawati, P., Parta, I. N., & Permadi, H. (2022). The learning of hybrid methods to improve mathematics critical thinking ability of students class XI MIPA. Jurnal Inspirasi Pendidikan, 12(1), 48-59. https://doi.org/10.21067/jip.v12i1.6360

Rahmi, A., & Suparman, S. (2019). Mathematical module based on ctl approach to increase learning motivation and 4C skills. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(12), 1303–1309. https://bit.ly/3zVcZf1  

Siew, N. M., & Mapeala, R. (2016). The effect of problem-based learning with thinking maps on fifth graders’ science critical. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 15(5), 602–616. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/16.15.602   

Smit, B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2018). Observations in qualitative inquiry: When what you see is not what you see. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17, 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918816766

Stupple, E. N. J., Maratos, F. A., Elander, J., Hunt, T. E., Cheung, K. Y. F., & Aubeeluck, A. V. (2017). Development of critical thinking toolkit (CRITT): A measure of student attitudes and beliefs about critical thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.11.007

Su, H. F. H. A., Ricci, F. A., & Mnatsakanian, M. (2015). Mathematical teaching strategies: Pathways to critical thinking and metacognition. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 2(1), 190–200. https://bit.ly/3xMm4E5  

Supartini, T., Weismann, I. T. J., Wijaya, H., & Helaluddin, H. (2020). Development of learning methods through songs and movements to improve children’s cognitive and psychomotor aspects. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(4), 1615–1633. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.9.4.1615

Supena, I., Darmuki, A., & Hariyadi, A. (2021). The influence of 4C (constructive, critical, creativity, collaborative) learning model on students’ learning outcomes. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 873–892. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14351a

Tzotzou, M. D. (2014). Designing and administering a needs analysis survey to primary school learners about EFL learning: A case study. Preschool & Primary Education, 2(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.12681/ppej.62

Van-Laar, E., Van-Dijk, A. J. A. M., & De-Haan, J. (2020). Determinants of 21st century skills and 21st-century digital skills for workers: A systematic literature review. SAGE Open, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019900176

Wahyudi, W., & Winanto, A. (2018). Development of project based blended learning (PJB2L) model to increase pre-service primary teacher creativity. Journal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 51(2), 93-109. https://doi.org/10.23887/jpp.v51i2.12795

Wilkinson, D., & Birmingham, P. (2003). Using research instruments: A guide for researchers. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203422991

Wyatt, M. (2011). Becoming a do-it-yourself designer of English teaching materials. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 12(1), 33–54.

Yee, M. H., Lai, C. S., Tee, T. K., & Mohamad, M. M. (2016). The role of higher order thinking skills in green skill development. MATEC Web of Conferences, 70, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1051/MATECCONF/20167005001

Yu, T. X., & Wan Mohammad, W. M. R. (2019). Integration of 21st century learning skills (4c elements) in interventions to improve english writing skill among 3k class students. International Journal of Contemporary Education, 2(2), 100–121. https://doi.org/10.11114/ijce.v2i2.4498

Zhdanto, A. (2019). Identification of cognitive manipulations that have the greatest impact on students in the internet. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 7(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/ijcrsee1901035Z

Zivkovil, S. (2016). A model of critical thinking as an important attribute for success in the 21st century. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 102–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.034

...