logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
extensive reading multicultural education multiliteracies pedagogy

Incorporating Multicultural Education Using Multiliteracies Practices in the Extensive Reading Class

Vidya Mandarani , Pratiwi Retnaningdyah , Ali Mustofa

Multicultural education is expected to improve the frameworks of educational institutions so that students from various ethnic, racial, cultural, and .


Multicultural education is expected to improve the frameworks of educational institutions so that students from various ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic groups have equal academic accomplishment possibilities. It is essential for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners and teachers in Indonesia since English has its own culture. This research aims to comprehend the practices of multiliteracies in incorporating multicultural education in extensive reading classes. This investigation used a qualitative case study using observation and in-depth interviews to collect data from the lecturer. The results showed that the lecturer incorporated all aspects of multicultural education in multiliteracies practices using a novel. While generating cultural value from students’ life experiences, the researchers discovered content integration, knowledge scaffolding, equity pedagogy, bias degradation, and empowerment of school culture. Multiliteracies practices can serve as an innovative teaching technique to promote multicultural education. Additionally, EFL lecturers need multicultural learning materials to support this and to encourage students to think critically.

Keywords: Extensive reading, multicultural education, multiliteracies pedagogy.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Abacioglu, C. S., Fischer, A. H., & Volman, M. (2022). Professional development in multicultural education: What can we learn from the Australian context? Teaching and Teacher Education, 114, Article 10371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2022.103701

Albers, P., Holbrook, T., & Flint, A. S. (Eds.). (2014). New methods of literacy research. Routledge.

Anindita, C. (2020). EFL students’ perception towards extensive reading practices in higher education level. RETAIN, 8(4), 89–98. http://bit.ly/anindita-unesa

Arsal, Z. (2019). Critical multicultural education and preservice teachers’ multicultural attitudes. Journal for Multicultural Education, 13(1), 106–118. https://doi.org/10.1108/JME-10-2017-0059

Aybek, B. (2018). Öğretmen adaylarının eleştirel düşünme eğilimleri ile çok kültürlü eğitime yönelik tutumları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [An examination of the relationship between the critical thinking dispositions of prospective teachers and their attitudes toward multicultural education]. Yükseköğretim Dergisi, 8(3), 282–292. https://doi.org/10.2399/yod.18.012

Banks, J. A. (2016). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. In J. A. Banks & C. A. McGee Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (9th ed., pp. 2–20). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Besar, P. H. S. N. (2018). Situated learning theory: The key to effective classroom teaching? Honai: International Journal for Education, Social, Political and Cultural Studies, 1(1), 49–60. https://bit.ly/47m7HWM

Cha, Y., Ham, S., & Lee, M. (2018). Introduction: Multicultural education research in Asia Pacific. In Y. Cha, S. Ham, & M. Lee (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of multicultural education research in Asia Pacific (pp. 1–6). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351179959-1

Cheng, J. E. (2017). Anti-racist discourse on Muslims in the Australian parliament. In Discourse approaches to politics, society, and culture (Vol. 72, pp. 85–90). John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.72

Cherng, H. S., & Davis, L. A. (2019). Multicultural matters: An investigation of key assumptions of multicultural education reform in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 70(3), 219–236. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487117742884

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2015). The things you do to know: An introduction to the pedagogy of multiliteracies. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Learning by design (pp. 1–36). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137539724

Diem, C. D., & Abdullah, U. (2020). Promoting multiculturalism: Teachers’ English proficiency and multicultural education in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(1), 46–58. https://doi.org/10.17509/IJAL.V10I1.24983

Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2013.12.004

Erbaş, Y. H. (2019). A qualitative case study of multicultural education in Turkey: Definitions of multiculturalism and multicultural education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 15(1), 23–43. https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2019.184.2

Garcés, A. Y. C. (2021). Awakening sociocultural realities in preservice teachers through a pedagogy of multiliteracies. GIST: Education and Learning Research Journal, 22(22), 173–197. https://doi.org/10.26817/16925777.844

Harjatanaya, T. Y., & Hoon, C.-Y. (2020). Politics of multicultural education in post-Suharto Indonesia: a study of the Chinese minority. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 50(1), 18–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2018.1493573

Iwai, Y. (2019). Culturally responsive teaching in a global era: Using the genres of multicultural literature. Educational Forum, 83(1), 13–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2018.1508529

Karacabey, M. F., Ozdere, M., & Bozkus, K. (2019). The attitudes of teachers towards multicultural education. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 383–393. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.1.383

Kim, S., Lee, M., & Shin, K. M. (2018). Multicultural education through multicultural literature in Korean primary schools. In Y. Cha, S. Ham, & M. Lee (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of multicultural education research in Asia Pacific (pp. 132–144). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351179959

Kiss, T., & Mizusawa, K. (2018). Revisiting the pedagogy of multiliteracies: Writing instruction in a multicultural context. Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education, 25(1), 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/1358684X.2017.1403283

Klarer, M. (2005). An introduction to literary studies (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Lee, S.-Y., Gloria Lo, Y., & Chin, T.-C. (2019). Practicing multiliteracies to enhance EFL learners’ meaning-making process and language development: A multimodal problem-based approach. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 34(1–2), 66-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1614959

Lindawati, R. (2021). Extensive reading in EFL learners: Moving from theory to practices. International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics, 1(3), 291–297. https://doi.org/10.47709/ijeal.v1i3.1346

Mills, K. A. (2010). The multiliteracies classroom. Multilingual Matters.

Moghissi, H. (2006). Muslim diaspora: Gender, culture, and identity. Routledge.

Munalim, L. O. (2020). Micro and macro practices of multicultural education in a Philippine university: Is it global integration ready? Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29, 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-019-00497-7

Mussa, S., & Fente, G. (2020). The appropriateness of literary texts in teaching reading skills: The case of some selected high schools in Ethiopia. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 10(10), 1200–1209. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1010.03

Mustofa, A., & Hill, J. L. (2018). Understanding cultural context in responding to literature: Researching the teaching of literature in EFL classroom context. English Language Teaching, 11(6), 108–114. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n6p108

Nanda, D. S., & Susanto, S. (2020). Using literary work as authentic material for the EFL classroom in Indonesia. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 12(12), 1057–1064. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/cjrwt

New London Group. (2000). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. In B. Cope & M. Kalantzis (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures (pp. 9–36). Routledge.

Nganga, L. (2020). Analyzing children’s literature for hidden bias helps preservice teachers gain pedagogical practices in critical multicultural education. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 34(1), 93–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2019.1692109

O’Byrne, W. I., & Smith, S. A. (2015). Multicultural education and multiliteracies: Exploration and exposure of literacy practices with preservice teachers. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 31(2), 168–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2014.968695

Odom, M. L. (2020). Multiliteracies and meaning-making: Writing to read across the curriculum. In A. S. Horning, D. L. Gollnitz, & C. R. Haller (Eds.), What is college reading? (pp. 255–270). The WAC Clearinghouse. https://doi.org/10.37514/atd-b.2017.0001.2.12

Pattiwael, A. S., & Id, A. P. A. (2019). Literature for developing students’ humanity awareness. Journal International Seminar on Languages, Literature, Art, and Education, 1(1), 79–88. https://bit.ly/4aTeHh8

Paul-Binyamin, I., & Haj-Yehia, K. (2019). Multicultural education in teacher education: Shared experience and awareness of power relations as a prerequisite for conflictual identities dialogue in Israel. Teaching and Teacher Education, 85, 249–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.06.021

Prihantoro, P., Suherdi, D., & Muslim, A. B. (2022). Developing students’ multimodal communicative competence through multiliteracies pedagogy. English Franca: Academic Journal of English Language and Education, 6(2), 191–219. https://doi.org/10.29240/ef.v6i2.5242

Provalis Research. (2023). Why use QDA Miner qualitative data analysis software? QDA Miner. https://bit.ly/QDAminer

Rajendram, S., & Govindarajoo, M. V. (2016). Responding to literature texts through films in English and the L1 within a multiliteracies pedagogy. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 5(2), 56–63. https://bit.ly/3RLYa5D

Rass, R. A. (2020). Integrating multicultural literature in EFL teacher training curriculum. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 10(5), 588–598. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojml.2020.105035

Reyes-Torres, A., & Raga, M. P. (2020). Multimodal approach to foster the multiliteracies pedagogy in the teaching of EFL through picture books: The Snow Lion. Atlantis, 42(1), 94–119. https://doi.org/10.28914/Atlantis-2020-42.1.06

Rizal, S. S. (2016). Trinities in discovering meanings on literature instructional scheme on literary studies. LITE, 12(1), 1–16. https://bit.ly/Rizal-Lite

Sang, Y. (2017). Expanded territories of “literacy”: New literacies and multiliteracies. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(8), 16–19. https://bit.ly/SangYuan

Sheth, F. A. (2022). Unruly women: Race, neocolonialism, and the hijab. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197547137.001.0001

Siaj, R. N., & Farrah, M. A. A. (2018). Using novels in the language classroom at Hebron university. Journal of Creative Practices in Language Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 44–59. https://bit.ly/Siaj

Smolen, L. A., & Oswald, R. A. (Eds.). (2011). Multicultural literature and response: Affirming diverse voices. ABC-CLIO, LLC.

Sungkowati, Y. (2019). Arek culture in literary works. Journal International Seminar on Languages, Literature, Arts, and Education, 1(1), 163–168. https://bit.ly/3RSg0UW

Tezera, D., & Bekele, G. (2021). Effect of teachers’ self-efficacy on their attitude towards the implementation of multicultural education literacy in Harari government secondary schools. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 9(1), 172–182. https://bit.ly/47nuZfc

Uddin, M. M. (2019). Acquiring English in EFL classroom: Role of literature. English Language and Literature Studies, 9(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.5539/ells.v9n1p17

Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research, and practice. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Multicultural education series (pp. 15–30). Teachers College Press.

Wang, C., & Ho, C.-T. (2019). Extensive reading for university EFL learners: Its effects and both teachers’ and learners’ views. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 10(4), 692–701. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.1004.04

Woodside, A. G. (2010). Case study research: Theory, methods, practice (1st ed.). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.