logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
paternalistic leadership paternalistic leadership scale research assistants scale development

Paternalistic Leadership Scale Turkish Adaptation a Validity – Reliability Study

Evrim Erol , Ilknur Senturk

The first step towards discussing a phenomenon or a concept in depth and with powerful scientific principles and methodology is to develop, adapt and .


The first step towards discussing a phenomenon or a concept in depth and with powerful scientific principles and methodology is to develop, adapt and utilize tools that accurately measure and discover the problem. For this purpose, the present study concentrated on paternalistic leadership, which is a new concept in the field of management, and reliability and validity studies on the scale (PLS) that was used to assess paternalistic leadership by Cheng et al. (2004) were conducted to add the scale to the national literature. The study was conducted on the data collected from 326 (EFA) + 255 (CFA) research assistants to determine the validity of the scale. In a determination of the reliability of the scale, item-total point correlations and Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficient were used. In order to determine how the scale works in different cultural and qualitative samples, the adaptation version was discussed by comparing with the previous factor analysis studies of the PLS. The analysis showed that adaptation version of the PLS, with the structure of its 3 sub-dimensional and 23-items, will able to be used in studies aiming to determine the characteristics of paternalistic leadership in the organizational structure and management processes of universities for the researchers working in the field of higher education.

Keywords: Paternalistic leadership, paternalistic leadership scale, research assistants, scale development

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Arslan, O. (2016). Okul yoneticilerinin paternalistic liderlik duzeyleri ile ogretmenlerin orgutsel sinizm algilari arasindaki iliski [The relationship between school administrators' paternalistic leadership levels and teachers' perception of organizational cynicism] (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Usak University, Usak, Turkey

Aycan, Z. (2001). Paternalizm: Yonetim ve liderlik anlayisina iliskin uc gorgul calisma [Paternalism: Three Empirical Studies on Management and Leadership]. Journal of Management Studies, 1(1), 1-19.

Aycan, Z., & Kanungo, R. N. (2000). Toplumsal kulturun kurumsal kultur ve insan kaynaklari uygulamalari uzerine etkileri [The effects of social culture on corporate culture and human resources practices]. In Z. Aycan (Ed.), Akademisyenler ve profesyoneller bakis acisiyla Turkiye’de yonetim, liderlik ve insan kaynaklari uygulamalari [Academics and Professionals in Turkey Perspective Management, Leadership and Human Resource Practices] (pp. 25-53). Ankara: Turkish Psychologists Association Publications.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: The Guilford Press.

Brumley, K. M. (2014). You care for your work; I'll care for your family: Perceptions of paternalistic managerial actions and employee commitment in Mexico. Community, Work & Family, 17(4), 467-485.

Buyukozturk, S. (2006). Sosyal bilimler icin veri analizi el kitabi [Data analysis for social sciences handbook]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Buyukozturk, S., Akgun, O. E., Ozkahveci, O., & Demirel F. (2004). Gudulenme ve ogrenme stratejileri olceginin Turkce formunun gecerlik ve guvenirlik calismasi [The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire]. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 4(2), 210-239.

Chan, S. C. H. (2014). Paternalistic leadership and employee voice: Does information sharing matter? Human Relations, 67(6), 667– 693.

Chen, H. Y., & Kao, H. S. R. (2009). Chinese paternalistic leadership and non-Chinese subordinates' psychological health. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(12), 2533-2546.

Chen, X. P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T. J., Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2014). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 796-819.

Cheng, B. S., Boer, D., Chou, L. F., Huang, M. P., Yoneyama, S., Shim, D., Sun, J. M., Lin, T. T., Chou, W. J., & Tsai, C. Y. (2014). Paternalistic leadership in four East Asian societies: Generalizability and cultural differences of the triad model. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1), 82–90.

Cheng, B. S., Chou, L. F., Wu, T. Y., Huang, M. P., & Farh, J. L. (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: Establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7(1), 89-117.

Cheng, B. S., Chou, L. F., & Farh, J. L. (2000). A triad model of paternalistic leadership: The constructs and measurement. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, (14), 3-64.

Cheng, B. S., Huang, M. P., & Chou, L. F. (2003). A triad model of paternalistic leadership: The evidence from Chinese mainland. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, (20), 209-252.

Cheng, M. Y., & Wang, L. (2014). The mediating effect of ethical climate on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and team identification: A team-level analysis in the Chinese context. Journal of Business Ethics, 5, 1-16.

Cokluk, O., Sekercioglu, G., & Buyukozturk, S. (2010). Sosyal bilimler icin cok degiskenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamalari [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Drasgow, F., & Schmitt, N. (2002). Measuring and analyzing behaviour in organizations, advances in measurement and data analysis. California: Josey-Bass.

Erben, G. S. (2004). Toplumsal kultur aile kulturu etkilesimi baglaminda paternalizm boyutuyla isletme kulturu: Turkiye ornegi [Social Culture in the context of family culture interaction with paternalism size business culture: The case of Turkey]. In T. Kocel (Ed.), 1. Aile isletmeleri kongresi [1. Family Businesses Congress] (pp. 345-356). Istanbul: Istanbul Kultur University Press.

Erben, G. S., & Guneser, A. B. (2008). The relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment: Investigating the role of climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 955-968.

Erben, G. S., & Otken, A. B. (2014). Paternalistic liderlik ve ise iliskin iyilik iliskisinde is-yasam dengesinin rolu [The role of work-life balance in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and work related well-being]. Journal of Management and Economics Research, 22, 103-121.

Erkus, A. (2012). Psikolojide olcme ve olcek gelistirme-I: Temel kavramlar ve islemler [measurement and scale development in psychology-I: Basic concepts and operations]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Erol, E., & Kunt, M. (2018). Egitim fakultelerinde orgutsel iklim ile orgutsel politika algisi arasindaki iliskiler [The relationship between organizational climate and perceptions of organizational politics in educational faculties]. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, (43), 15-29.

Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2000a). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In J., T., Li; A., S., Tsui & E., Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in the Chinese context (pp. 84-127). London: Macmillan.

Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2000b). Paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations: An analysis from culture perspective. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 13, 127-180.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: SAGE.

Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 479-514.

Goncu, A., Aycan, Z., & Johnson, R. E. (2014). Effects of paternalistic and transformational leadership on follower outcomes. The International Journal of Management and Business, 5(1), 36-58

Gorsuch, R. L. (1974). Factor analysis. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.

Hakimian, F., Farid, H., Ismail, M. N., & Ismail, I. A. (2014). The role of paternalistic leadership on fostering employees’ innovative behavior: Moderating effects of job insecurity. International Journal of Research in Business and Technology, 4(2), 446-453.

Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequence: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. California: Sage.

Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.

Kaygisizel, E. (2015). The relationship between paternalistic leadership leader-member exchange (LMX) and job stress: An exploratory research on workers from private and public sectors in Turkey (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey

Kaygisizel, E., & Okten, A. B. (2015). Is paternalistic leadership a source of job stress? International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research, 3(11), 44-53.

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

Koksal, O. (2011a). Bir kulturel liderlik paradoksu: Paternalizm [A cultural leadership paradox: Paternalism]. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 8(15), 101-122.

Koksal, O. (2011b). Paternalizm ile algilanan orgutsel adalet arasindaki iliskinin tespitine yonelik bir arastirma [An empirical study towards determination of the relationship between Paternalism and perceived organizational justice]. Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 12(2), 159-170.

Lirang, L., Panpan, M., Yong, Z., & Xiaobing, H. (2014). The influence of paternalistic leadership on work alienation: Mediating effect of perceived organizational support. Chinese Journal of Management, 11(8), 1150-1169.

Martinez, P. G. (2003). Paternalism as a positive form of leader-subordinate exchange: Evidence from Mexico. Journal of Iberoamerican Academy of Management, 1, 227-242.

Mussolin, D., & Calabro, A. (2014). Paternalistic leadership in family firms: Types and implications for intergenerational succession. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5, 197–210.

Nal, M., & Tarim, M. (2017). Saglik yoneticilerinin paternalistic (babacan) liderlik davranislarinin calisanlarin is doyumu uzerine etkisi [The effect of paternalistic leadership behaviour by health managers on workers’ job satisfaction]. ACU International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 117-141.

Okten, A. B., & Cenkci, T. (2012). The impact of paternalistic leadership on ethical climate: The moderating role of trust in leader. Journal of Business Ethics, 108, 525-536.

Ozcelik, G., & Cenkci, T. (2014). Moderating effects of job embeddedness on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and in-role job performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 872-880.

Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2006). Leader-member exchange (LMX), paternalism and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(2), 264-279.

Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34, 566-593.

Pellegrini, E. K., Scandura, T. A., & Jayaraman, V. (2010). Cross-cultural generalizability of paternalistic leadership: An expansion of leader–member exchange theory. Group & Organization Management, 35(4), 391-420.

Rehman, M., & Afsar, B. (2012). The impact of paternalistic leadership on organization commitment and organization citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Management and Applied Economics, 5, 2-12.

Sagie, A., & Aycan, Z. (2003). A cross-cultural analysis of participative decision-making in organizations. Human Relations, 56(2), 453-473.

Schroeder, J. (2011). The impact of paternalism and organizational collectivism in multinational and family-owned firms in Turkey, Theses and Dissertations, 17, 1-24.

Sendogdu, A. A., & Erdincelebi, M. (2014). Paternalistik liderlik ile orgutsel vatandaslik davranisi arasindaki iliskiye yonelik bir arastirma [A study on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior]. The Journal of Social and Economic Research, 14(27), 253-273.

Shahbazi, G., Naami, A., & Aligholizadeh, S. (2013). An empirical study of the relationship between three components of paternalistic leadership and workplace bullying: The case of an Iranian Bank. World Applied Sciences Journal, 22(12), 1814-1821.

Simsek, O. F. (2007). Yapisal esitlik modellemesine giris: Temel ilkeler ve LISREL uygulamalari [Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling: Basic Principles and LISREL Applications]. Ankara: Ekinoks.

Soylu, S. (2011). Creating a family or loyalty-based framework: The effects of paternalistic leadership on workplace bullying. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 217-231.

Stevens, J. (1996). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Suneli-Erden, P. (2014). The relationship between paternalistic leadership, perceived employment discrimination and nepotism (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Tavsancil, E. (2005). Tutumlarin olculmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi [Measurement of attitudes and data analysis with SPSS]. Ankara: Nobel.

Ugurluoglu, O., Ugurluoglu-Aldogan, E., & Urek, D. (2017). Saglik calisanlarinin paternalistik liderlik algilarini etkileyen etmenler [Factors affecting health professionals’ perceptions of paternalistic leadership]. KMU Journal of Social and Economic Research, 19(32), 1-7.

Veloen, M. (2016). The influence of paternalistic leadership on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour at selected organizations in the Western Cape Province (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Republic of South Africa.

Westwood, R. I., & Chan, A. (1992). Headship and leadership. In R. I. Westwood (Ed). Organizational Behavior: A Southeast Asian Perspective. Hong Kong: Longman.

Wu, M., Huang, X., & Chan, S. C. H. (2012). The influencing mechanisms of paternalistic leadership in Mainland China. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(4), 631-648.

Yardimci, C. (2011). Paternalistik liderlik davranislarinin is tatmini uzerindeki etkisi: Bankacilik sektoru uzerinde bir uygulama [Effects of paternalistic leadership behaviors on job satisfaction: an application on banking sector] (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Yeh, H. R., Chi, H. K., & Chiou, C. Y. (2008). The influences of paternalistic leadership, job stress, and organizational commitment on organizational performance: An empirical study of policemen in Taiwan. The Journal of International Management Studies, 3(2), 85-91.

Yesiltas, M. (2013). Paternalistic liderligin orgutsel vatandaslik davranislari uzerindeki etkisinde dagitim adaletinin aracilik rolu [The effects of paternalistic leadership on organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of distributive justice]. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 5(4), 50-70.

YOK (1981). 2547 Sayili Yuksekogretim Kanunu [2547 Higher Education Act].

Yuksel, S. (2010). Turk universitelerinde egitim fakulteleri ve ogretmen yetistirme [Education faculties and teacher training in Turk universities]. Ankara: Pegem

Yurdagul, H., & Askar, P. (2008). An investigation of the factorial structures of pupils’ attitude towards technology (PATT): A Turkish sample. Primary Education Online, 7(2), 288-309.

Yuzbasioglu, N., & Dogan, O. (2018). Relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment in hospitality industry: Case of Antalya, Turkey. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(1), 163-173.

Zhang, Y., Huai, M., & Xie, Y. (2015). Paternalistic leadership and employee voice in China: A dual process model. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, 25-36.

Zheng, Y. (2016) Fear and compliance: A study of antecedents, mediators and benefits of paternalistic leadership in China (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Durham University, Durham, England

Zwick, W. R., & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99(3), 432-442.