logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
procrastination academic achievement academic success meta analysis effect size

The Effect of Procrastination on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

Uğur Akpur

The aim of the present study is to examine the effect level of procrastination on academic achievement. To this end, a meta-analytic approach was appl.


The aim of the present study is to examine the effect level of procrastination on academic achievement. To this end, a meta-analytic approach was applied and the studies published between January 2000 and May 2020 in Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Academic Search Ultimate databases were included in the study. The research was limited to articles examining the correlation between the variables and, accordingly, the correlation coefficient was specified as an index to identify the effect size. After reviewing 22 relevant studies with 8307 participants, the meta-analysis was conducted through Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. The findings revealed that the variables were negatively correlated with each other and the overall effect size of procrastination on academic achievement was found -0.61, which can be interpreted as the medium effect size. The findings of the study endorse the main tenets of theoretical framework regarding the aforementioned link.

Keywords: Procrastination, academic achievement, academic success, meta-analysis, effect size.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


(References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.)

*Akça, F. (2012). An investigation into the self-handicapping behaviors of undergraduates in terms of academic procrastination, the locus of control and academic success. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v1n2p288

Akobeng. A. K. (2005). Understanding systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845–8.

*Aremu, A. O., Williams, T. M., & Adesina, F. T. (2011). Influence of academic procrastination and personality type on academic achievement and efficacy on in-school adolescents in Ibadan. IFE PsychologIA, 191, 93-113.

*Atalayin, Ç., Balkıs, M., Tezel, H., & Kayrak, G. (2018). Procrastination and predictor  variables among a group of dental students in Turkey. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 236, 726-732. 

*Balkıs, M. (2013). Academic procrastination, academic life satisfaction, and academic achievement: The mediation role of rational beliefs about studying. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1), 57-74.

Balkıs, M., & Duru, E. (2009). Prevalence of academic procrastination behavior among pre-service teachers, and its relation with demographics and individual preferences [Akademik erteleme davranışının öğretmen adayları arasındaki yaygınlığı, demografik özellikler ve bireysel tercihlerle ilişkisi]. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education / Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama, 5(1), 18–32.

*Balkıs, M., & Duru, E. (2017). Gender differences in the relationship between academic procrastination, satisfaction with academic life and academic performance. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 15(1), 105-125. https://doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.41.16042

*Balkıs, M., Duru, E., & Buluş, M. (2013). Analysis of the relation between academic procrastination, academic rational/irrational beliefs, time preferences to study for exams, and academic achievement: a structural model. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 825-839. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0142-5

*Batool, S. S. (2019). Academic achievement: Interplay of positive parenting, self-esteem, and academic procrastination. The Australian Psychological Society, 72, 174-187. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12280

Beutel M. E, Klein, E. M., Aufenanger, S., Brähler, E., Dreier, M., Müller, K. W, Quiring, O., Reinecke, L., Schmutzer, G., Stark, B., & Wöfling, K. (2016). Procrastination, distress and life satisfaction across the age range – A German representative community study. PLoS ONE, 11(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148054

Burka, J. B., & Yuen, L. M. (2008). Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about it now. Da Capo Press.

*Borekci, C., & Uyangor, N. (2018). Family attitude, academic procrastination and test anxiety as predictors of academic achievement. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(4), 219-226. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.4.4.219

Chu, A. H. C., & Choi, J. N. (2005). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of ‘active’ procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 145(3), 245-264. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.145.3.245-264

*Clariana, M., Gotzens, C., Del Mar Badia, M., & Cladellas, R. (2012). Procrastinacion y engano academico desde la secundaria hasta la universidad [Procrastination and cheating from secondary school to university]. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(2), 737-754.

*Cosnefroy, L., Fenouillet, F., Mazé, C., & Bonnefoy, B. (2018). On the relationship between the forethought phase of self-regulated learning and self-regulation failure. Issues in Educational Research, 28(2), 329-348.

De Paola, M., & Scoppa, V. (2015). Procrastination, academic success and the effectiveness of a remedial program (IZA Discussion Paper No. 8021). https://file:///Users/user/Downloads/dp8021%20(1).pdf

Demeter, D., & Davis, S. (2013). Procrastination as a tool: Exploring unconventional components of academic success. Creative Education, 4(7A2), 144-149. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.47A2018

Dinçer, S. (2014). Eğitim bilimlerinde uygulamalı meta-analiz. Pegem Akademi.

Dunn, K. E., Rakes, G. C., & Rakes, T. A. (2014). The influence of perfectionism and achievement goal orientation on procrastination in online graduate students [Paper presentation]. The American Educational Research Association Conference, Philadelphia, United States.

Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. Institute for Rational Living.

Ferrari J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating: The no regrets guide to getting it done. John Wiley and Sons.

Ferrari, J. (2017, May 8). Are you a procrastinator? Here’s how you’re helping online scammers. Guardian.

Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J. L., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. Plenum Press

Ferrari, J., & Tice, D. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(1), 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.1999.2261.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Dimensions of perfectionism and procrastination. In J. R. Ferrari, J. L. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance (pp. 71-96). Springer.

*Goroshit, M. (2018). Academic procrastination and academic performance: An initial basis for intervention. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2016.1198157

Gustavson, D. E., & Miyake, A. (2017). Academic procrastination and goal accomplishment: A combined experimental and individual differences investigation. Learning and Individual Differences, 54, 160–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2017.01.010

Hayat, A. A., Jahanian, M., Bazrafcan, L., & Shokrpour, N. (In Press). Prevalence of academic procrastination among medical students and its relationship with their academic achievement. Shiraz E-Medical Journal Online, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.96049

He, S. (2017). A multivariate investigation into academic procrastination of university students. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 12-24. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.510002

Hussain, I., & Sultan, S. (2010). Analysis of procrastination among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1897-1904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.385

Joubert, C. P. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic achievement of high school learners in North West province, South Africa [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of South Africa.

Kennedy, G. J., & Tuckman, B. W. (2013). An exploration into the influence of academic and social values, procrastination, and perceived school belongingness on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, 16(3), 435–470. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-013-9220-z.

Kim, R. K., & Seo, H. E. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038.

Klassen, M. R., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (2010). Academic procrastination in two settings: Motivation correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Applied Psychology, 59(3), 361- 379.

*Kljajic, K., & Gaudreau, P. (2018). Does it matter if students procrastinate more in some courses than in others? A multilevel perspective on procrastination and academic achievement. Learning and Instruction, 58, 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.06.005.

Knaus, W. (2002). The procrastination workbook. New Harbinger Publications

*Kurtovic, A., Vrdoljak, G., & Idzanovic, A. (2019). Predicting procrastination: The role of academic achievement, self-efficacy and perfectionism. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 8(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2019.2993

Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20(4), 474 – 495.

Lay, C. H. (2004). Some basic elements in counseling procrastinators. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, T. A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.) Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings 43–58. American Psychological Association.

Lakshminarayan, N., Potdar, S., & Reddy, S. G. (2013). Relationship between procrastination and academic performance among a group of undergraduate dental students in India. Journal of Dental Education, 77(4), 524-528. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.0022-0337.2013.77.4.tb05499.x

*Lee, J., Bong, M., & Kim, S. (2014). Interaction between task values and self-efficacy on maladaptive achievement strategy use. Educational Psychology, 34(5), 538-560, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/01443410.2014.895296

*Macher, D., Paechter, M., Papousek, I., & Ruggeri, K. (2012). Statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, learning behavior, and academic performance. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(4), 483-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-011-0090-5

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Procrastination. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 5, 2019, from https://www.merriamwebster.com/

*Mouratidis, A., Michou, M., & Vassiou, A. (2017). Adolescents’ autonomous functioning and implicit theories of ability as predictors of their school achievement and week-to-week study regulation and well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.09.001

*Michinov, N., Brunot, S., Le Bohec, O., Juhel, J., & Delaval, M. (2011). Procrastination, participation, and performance in online learning environments. Computers and Education, 56(1), 243-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.025

Nwosu, K. C., Okoyoe, C. C., & Onah, U. H. (2018). An interpretive descriptive study of factors affecting academic achievement of underachieving student teachers in Nigeria. Journal of At-Risk Issues, 21(2), 20-29.

*Ocal, K. (2016). Predictors of academic procrastination and university life satisfaction among Turkish sport schools students. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(7), 482-490. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2645

Onwuegbuzie, J. A., & Jiao, Q. G. (2000). I’ll go to the library later: The relationship between academic procrastination and library anxiety. College and Research Libraries, 61(1), 45-54.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3-19.

*Pinxten, M., De Laet, T., Soom, C. V., Peeters, C., & Langie, G. (2019). Purposeful delay and academic achievement. A critical review of the Active Procrastination Scale. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.04.010

Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387-394.

*Sæle, R.G., Dahl, T. I., Sørlie, T., & Friborg, O. (2017). Relationships between learning approach, procrastination and academic achievement amongst first-year university students. Higher Education, 74(5), 757-774.

Sarı, K., & Ören Şaşmaz, F. (2019). Araştırmaya Dayalı Öğrenme Stratejisinin Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarına Etkisi: Bir Meta Analiz Çalışması [The Effect of the Inquiry-Based Learning Strategy on Academic Achievements of the Students: A Study of Meta-Analysis]. Hacettepe University Journal of Education/ Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 35(3), 540-555. https://doi.org/ 10.16986/HUJE.2019052510

Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12-25.

Senecal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), 607-619. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1995.9712234

Shorten, A., & Shorten, B. (2013). What is meta-analysis? Evidence Based Nursing, 16(1), 3-4.

Solomon, J. L., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503- 509.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94.

Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, Education and Procrastination: An Epidemiological Study of Procrastinators’ Characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51–58. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/per.1851

Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 5(11), 36–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12173

Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: the costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454–458. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00460.x

van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1401-1418. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-88690200358-6

Vij, J., & Lomash, H. (2014). Role of motivation in academic procrastination. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(8), 1065-1070.

Wu, F., & Fan, W. (2017). Academic procrastination in linking motivation and achievement-related behaviours: a perspective of expectancy-value theory. Educational Psychology, 37(6), 695-711. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2016.1202901

*You, J. W. (2015). Examining the effect of academic procrastination on achievement using LMS data in e-learning. Educational Technology and Society, 18(3), 64–74.

*Yurtseven, N., & Akpur, U. (2018). Perfectionism, anxiety and procrastination as predictors of EFL academic achievement: A mixed methods study. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 122, 96-115.