logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
school counseling professional identity satisfaction work commitment and self efficacy

The Impact of Academic, Personal, and Professional Attributes on the Occupational Identity of School Counselors in Israel

Einat Heled , Nitza Davidovitch

This article focuses on the influence of academic training, job issues, personality and demographic characteristics of school counselors on their prof.


This article focuses on the influence of academic training, job issues, personality and demographic characteristics of school counselors on their professional identity construction, which is developed in a theoretical model based on educational-psychological theories. Most of the training in Master's degree studies in school counseling is incompatible with actual job demands; Consequently, when beginning work, school counselors lack suitable training and relevant professional tools. Moreover, in Israel and elsewhere, the definition of school counseling is unclear and inconclusive, and this affects the counselors' professional identity and the quality of their work. The proposed model of the variables that affect school counselors’ professional identity may enhance the relationship between academia and the field, with the aim of promoting academic excellence and a well-formulated professional identity for the profession of school counseling, as well as improving the employment terms of school counselors, in light of the challenges facing higher education systems in the 21st century.

Keywords: School counseling, professional identity, satisfaction, work commitment, and self-efficacy.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Asulin, S. (2005). Students' perceptions of the school counseling profession (Unpublished master's thesis). Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. [In Hebrew]

Baggerly, J., & Osborn, D. (2006). School counselors’ career satisfaction and commitment: Correlates and predictors. Professional School Counseling, 9(3), 197–205.

Bryant, R. M., & Constantine, M. G. (2006). Multiple role balance, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction in women school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9(4), 265–271.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.

Bar-El, Z., & Lazovsky, R. (2008). The relationship between self-efficacy and professionalism – and the causal attribution style among school counselors. Beit Berl, Israel:  Beit Berl College, Research and Evaluation Unit. [In Hebrew]

Barnes, K. L. (2004). Applying self-efficacy theory to counselor training and supervision: A comparison of two approaches. Counselor Education and Supervision, 44(1), 56–69.

Beijaard, D., Verloop N., & Vermunt J. D. (2000). Teacher’s perceptions of professional identity: an exploratory study from a personal knowledge perspective, Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(7), 749–764.

Blau, G. J. (1985). The Measurement and Prediction of Career Commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58(4), 277-288.

Brott, P. E., & Myers, J. E. (1999). Development of school counselor identity: A grounded theory. Professional School Counseling, 2(5), 339–348.

Calley, N. G., & Hawley, L. D. (2008). The professional identity of counselor educators. The Clinical Supervisor, 27(1), 3–16.

Canrinus, E. T., Helms-Lorenz, M., Beijaard, D., Buitink, J., & Hofman, A. (2011). Profiling teachers’ sense of professional identity. Educational Studies, 37(5), 593–608.

Cinotti, D. (2014). Competing professional identity models in school counseling: A historical perspective and commentary. The Professional Counselor, 4(5), 417–425.

Cobia, D. C., & Henderson, D. A. (2003). Handbook of school counseling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Coll, K. M., & Freeman, B. (1997). Role conflict among elementary school counselors: A national comparison with middle and secondary school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 31(4), 251-261.

Crosslin, S. L. (2006). School counselor's perception of professional identity and role conflict. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Argosy-Sarasota.

Culbreth, J. R., Scarborough, J. L., Banks-Johnson, A., & Solomon, S. (2005). Role stress among practicing school counselors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45(1), 58-71.

Daniels, J. A., & Larson, L. M. (2001). The impact of performance feedback on counseling self-efficacy and counselor anxiety. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41(2), 120–130.

Davidovitch, N. (2005). Higher education at a crossroads. Development trends of the regional colleges and their implications for Israel's system of higher education. Tel Aviv, Israel: Alpha. [In Hebrew]

Deshevsky, A. (2009). Standards for professional practice in school counseling. Published by the Ministry of Education, Psychology and Counseling Services. [In Hebrew]

Emerson, S., & Markos, P. A. (1996). Signs and symptoms of the impaired counselor. The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 34(3), 108–117.

Erhard, R. (2008). Research on school counselors in Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports, Psychology and Counseling Services, Research and Development Unit. [In Hebrew]

Erhard, R. (2014). School counseling – A profession in search of identity. Tel Aviv, Israel: Mofet. [In Hebrew]

Erhard, R., & Klingman, A. (Eds.) (2004). School counseling in a changing society. Tel Aviv, Israel: Ramot. [In Hebrew]

Eschenauer, R., & Chen-Hayes S. F. (2005). The Transformative Individual school counseling model: An accountability model for urban school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 244–248.

Etringer, B., Hillerbrand, E., & Claiborn, C. (1995). The transition from novice to expert counselor. Counselor Education and Supervision, 35(1), 4–17.

Fisherman, S., & Weiss, I. I. P. (2011). Teachers' professional identity: The concept and its measurement. Dapim, 51, 39–56. [In Hebrew]

Fishman, A. (2002). Compromises in the career decision making process among graduate students of school counseling. (Unpublished master's thesis). Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. [In Hebrew]

Fraze, S. D. (1986). The relationship of participation in selected FFA activities with career choice and job satisfaction of program completers in vocational agriculture in Texas (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University, Texas, United States.

Fu, J. R. (2011). Understanding career commitment of IT professionals: Perspectives of push–pull–mooring framework and investment model. International Journal or Information Management, 31(3), 279–293.

Gade, E. M., & Houdek, B. (1993). Job satisfaction and functions of counselors in split school assignments. The School Counselors, 41(2), 86-89.

Gee, J.  P. (2000). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. Review of Research in Education, 3, 99–125.

Guillot-Miller, I. M. (2003). School counselor preparation, supervision and professional identity. Doctoral dissertation. University of New Orleans.

Gunduz, B. (2012). Self-efficacy and burnout in school counselors. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 12(3), 1761–1767.

Grilli, L., & Rampichini, C. (2007). A multilevel analysis of graduates’ job satisfaction. In L. Fabbris (Ed). Effectiveness of university education in Italy: Employability, competences, human capital (pp. 29–42). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Hatch, T., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). School counselor beliefs about ASCA model school counseling programs components using the SCPSC scale. Professional School Counselor, 12(1), 34–42.

Hill, C., Bandfield, A., & White, M. L. (2007). Leadership development 101: From graduate students to professional counselors. Examplar, 22(1), 10.

Himelein, M. J., & Putnam, E. A. (2001). Work activities of academic clinical psychologists: Do they practice what they teach? Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 32(5), 537–542.

Irani, T., & Scherler, C. (2002). Job satisfaction as an outcome measure of the effectiveness of an agricultural communications undergraduate program. Journal of Agricultural Education, 43(1), 12–23.

Jacob, T., & Davidovitch, N. (2010). Physical therapy graduate's work integration and satisfaction with job and academic training – Results of alumni survey: 2004- 2009. Journal of Israeli Physiotherapy Society, 11(3), 22–28.

Jebril, M. Y. (2008). The evolution and measurement of professional Identity (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas woman's University. Texas, United States.

Kolodinsky, P., Draves, P., Schroder, V., Lindsey, C., & Zlatev, M. (2009). Reported levels of satisfaction and frustration by Arizona school counselors: A desire for greater connections with students in a data-driven era. Professional School Counseling, 12(3), 193–199.

Kozminsky, L. (2008). Professional identity in teaching. Shvilei Mehkar, 15, 13-17. [In Hebrew]

Lafleur, L. B. (2007). Counselors' perceptions of identity and attitudinal differences between counselors and other mental health professionals. Doctoral dissertation, University of New Orleans

Lambie, G. W. (2006). Burnout prevention: A humanistic perspective and structured group supervision activity. The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development. Education and Development, 45(1), 32–44.

Lambie, G. W., & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: A historical proposition. Professional School Counseling, 8(2), 124–131.

Lanman, S. A. (2011). Counselor Educators: Clinical Practice and Professional Identity (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Larson, L. M., & Daniels, J. A. (1998). Review of the counseling self-efficacy literature. The Counseling Psychologist, 26(2), 179–218.

Lazovsky, R. (1998). Autonomy and uniqueness in educational counseling. In R. Lazovsky & S. Feldman (Eds.), Space and territory in educational counseling (pp. 34–39). Even Yehuda, Israel: Reches. [In Hebrew]

Lazovsky, R. (2004). Relationship of growth: Coaching trainees in school counseling. In R. Erhard and A. Klingman (Eds.), School counseling in a changing society (pp. 423-442). Tel Aviv, Israel: Ramot. [In Hebrew]

Lee, S. M., Cho, S. H., Kissinger, D., & Ogle, N. T. (2010). A typology of burnout in professional counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(2), 131–138.

Maslach, C. (2003). Job burnout: New directions in research and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(5), 189–192.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397–422.

McCarthy, C., Kerne, V. V., Calfa, N. A., Lambert, R. G., & Guzman, M. (2010). An exploration of school counselors' demands and resources: Relationship to stress, biographic, and caseload characteristics. Professional School Counseling, 13(3), 146–158.

Monrouxe, L. V. (2009). Negotiating professional identities: Dominant and contesting narratives in medical students’ longitudinal audio diaries. Current Narratives, 1(1), 41–59.

Moracco, J. C., Butcke, P. G., & McEwen, M. K. (1984). Measuring stress in school counselors: Some research findings and implications. The School Counselor, 32(2), 110–118.

Myers, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & White, V. E. (2002). Advocacy for counseling and counselors: A professional imperative. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(4), 394–402.

Pistole, M. C., & Roberts, A. (2002). Mental health counseling: Toward resolving identity confusions. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 1–19

Richter, R. R., & Ruebling, I. (2003). Model for Development of Outcome Assessment Surveys for Allied Health Educational Programs. Journal of Allied Health, 32(3), 179–184.

Rogers, C. R., & Scott, K. H. (2008). The development of the personal self and professional identity in learning to teach. In: M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman- Nemser, D. J. McIntyre and K. E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 732–746). New York, NY: Routledge.

Sawatzky, D., Jevne, R. F., & Clark, G. T. (1994). Becoming empowered: A study of counselor development. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 28(3), 177–192.

Scanlon, C., & Baillie, A. P. (1994). A preparation for practice? Students experiences of counseling training within departments of higher education. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 7(4), 407–427.

Schwartz, A. (2008). Training school counselors in Israel: A glance backstage (Unpublished master's thesis). Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. [In Hebrew]

Sears, J. S. & Navin, S. L. (1983). Stressors in school counseling. Education, 103(4), 333–337.

Sharpley, C. F., & Ridgway, I. R. (1993). An evaluation of the effectiveness of self-efficacy as a predictor of trainees' counselling skills performance. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 21(1), 73–81.

Shores, A. S. (2011). Exploring professional identity of counselors in training: A phenomenological study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Perlberg- Simcha, L., & Erhard, R. (2007). How counselors perceive the meaning of "systemic work". School Counselor, 14, 153–176. [In Hebrew]

Skovholt, T. M., & Ronnestad, M. H. (1992). Themes in therapist and counselor development. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70(4), 505–515.

State Comptroller Report (2014). School counseling in schools and pre-schools. Annual report 64c for 2013, pp. 913-943. Jerusalem: Office of the State Comptroller. [In Hebrew]

 Stickel, S. A. (1991). A study of burnout and job satisfaction among rural school counselors. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association, Boston, MA, February 13–16.

Stout, D. M. (2004). Teacher professional identity development: Initial years of teaching practice (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Sutton, J. M., & Fall, M. (1995). The relationship of school climate factors to counselor self-efficacy. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73(3), 331–336.

Tatar, M. (1997). Perceptions and expectations of school counselors regarding their roles. School Counseling, 6, 48–71. [In Hebrew]

Tickle, L. (1999). Teacher self-appraisal and appraisal of self. In R. P. Lipka and T. M. Brinthaupt (Eds.), The role of self in teacher development (pp. 121–141). New York, NY: State University of New York Press.

Toombs, W. E., & Tierney, W. G. (1993). Curriculum definitions and reference points. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 8(3), 175–195.

Wallace, S. L., Lee, J., & Lee, S. M. (2010). Job stress, coping strategies, and burnout among abuse-specific counselors. Journal of Employment Counseling, 47(3), 111–122.

Watson, G. (2006). Technology professional development: Long-term effects on teacher self-efficacy. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(1), 151–166.

Webber, J. M., & Mascari, J. B. (2006). Counselor or educators: Strengthening the professional identity of school counselors [Electronic version]. Vitas 2006 Online, 1–14. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/vistas06_online-only/Webber.pdf

Wilkerson, K. (2009). An examination of burnout among school counselors guided by Stress-Strain-Coping Theory. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(4), 428–437.

Wilkerson, K., & Bellini, J. (2006). Intrapersonal and organizational factors associated with burnout among school counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(4), 440–450.

Yosifon, M. (1998). The educational system in the postmodern era: Trends of change in the role of the future educational counselor. In R. Lazovsky & S. Vafledman (Eds.), Space and heritage in educational counseling (pp. 143–172). Even Yehuda, Israel: Reches. [In Hebrew]