logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
attitude towards statistics confirmatory factor analysis rural schools validity and reliability of survey

Investigating the Validity and Reliability of Survey Attitude towards Statistics Instrument among Rural Secondary School Students

Siti Shahirah Saidi , Nyet Moi Siew

Positive attitude towards statistics is a desirable aspect in developing statistical thinking and understanding statistical concept. The attitude towa.


Positive attitude towards statistics is a desirable aspect in developing statistical thinking and understanding statistical concept. The attitude towards statistics instrument in previous study on rural school students lacked evidence in the validity analysis. Therefore, there is a need to provide a valid instrument that can assess rural secondary school students’ attitude toward statistics. For this purpose, this study was carried out to investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the Survey Attitude towards Statistics (SATS-36) instrument from a sample of rural secondary school students. The SATS-36 is a 7-point Likert type scale questionnaire, used to measure students’ attitude towards statistics. The SATS-36 instrument was distributed to 217 Tenth grade science stream students from a rural district in Sabah, Malaysia, which comprised of 66 (30.4%) boys and 151 (69.6%) girls. A second order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was carried out to analyze the validity of the SATS-36 instrument as well as to confirm the 6-factor model of SATS-36. The reliability of SATS-36 instrument was assessed through the Cronbach’s Alpha value. Overall, the analysis showed that the SATS-36 instrument shows favorable indices for both its validity and reliability. Thus, it can be concluded that the SATS-36 was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students’ attitude towards statistics among rural science stream secondary school students.

Keywords: Attitude towards statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, rural schools, validity and reliability of survey.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics



Awaludina, I. S., Ab Razak, R., Harris, H., & Selamat, Z. (2015). Antecedents of students’ achievement in statistics. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1643(1), 384 -390. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4907470

Awang, Z. (2012). Structural equation modelling using AMOS graphic. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: UiTM Press.

Awang, Z. (2014). Research methodology and data analysis (2nd ed.). Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia: UiTM Press.

Che Musa, N. A., Mahmud, Z., & Md Ghani, N. A. (2011). Application of Rasch measurement model in validation and analysis of measurement instruments in statistical education research. Recent Research in Education, 1(1), 123-129.

Chen, F. F., Sousa, K. H., & West, S. G. (2005). Testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models. Structural Equation Modeling, 12(3), 471–492. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1203_7

Chiesi, F., & Primi, C. (2015). Gender differences in attitudes toward statistics: Is there a case for a confidence gap ? In K. Krainer & N. Vondrova (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 622-628). Prague, Czech Republic: Charles University.

Coetzee, S., & Van der Merwe, P. (2010). Industrial psychology students’ attitudes towards statistics. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 843.

Emmioglu, E., & Capa-Aydin, Y. (2012). Attitudes and achievement in statistics: A meta-analysis study. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 95-102.

Erol, E., & Senturk, I. (2018). Paternalistic leadership scale Turkish adaptation a validity – reliability study. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(4), 267-285. https:// doi.org/10.12973/ijem.4.4.267

Evans, B. R. (2007). Student attitudes, conceptions, and achievement in introductory undergraduate college statistics. The Mathematics Educator, 17(2), 24-30.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Edinburgh Gate, UK: Pearson Education Limited.

Hamdi, A. S., & Bahruddin, E. (2015). Metode penilitian kuantitatif aplikasi dalam pendidikan [Quantitative application research methods in education]. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Deepublish.

Hommik, C., & Luik, P. (2017). Adapting the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36) for Estonian secondary school students. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16(1), 228–39.

IEA (2008). TIMSS 2007 International Science Report. Chestnut Hill, PA: IEA.

Ishak, M. Z. (2012, October, 9). Transformasi pendidikan luar bandar di Sabah [Rural education transformation in Sabah]. Retrieved from http://www.fp.utm.my/ePusatSumber/listseminar/medc2012/pdf/UMS.pdf

Khavenson, T., Orel, E., & Tryakshina, M. (2012). Adaptation of survey of attitudes towards statistics (SATS 36) for Russian sample. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2126–2129.

Kline, R.B. (2005), Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Maat, S. M., Zakaria, E., & Rosli, M. K. (2017). The validation of statistical anxiety rating scale using confirmatory factor analysis among graduate students. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, 4(2), 160-167.

Mahmud, Z. & Osman, N. (2010). Statistical competency and attitude towards learning elementary statistics: A case of SMK Bandar Baru Sg Buloh. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Martins, J., Nascimento, M., & Estrada, A. (2011). Attitudes of teachers towards statistics: A preliminary study with Portuguese teachers. In M. Pytlak, T. Rowland, E. Swoboda (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME 7) (pp.1-10). Rzeszow, Poland: University of Rzeszow and ESRM.

Mohd Judi, H., Sahari, N., Mohamed, H., & Tengku Wook, T. M. (2011a). Students profile based on attitude towards statistics. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 266–72.

Mohd Judi H., Sahari, N., Mohamed, H., & Tengku Wook, T. M. (2011b). A structural validity study of students’ attitudes towards statistics: An initial empirical investigation. Journal of Quality Measurement and Analysis, 7(2), 163-171.

Naccache, H. S. (2012). Factors related to student performance in statistics courses in Lebanon (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA.

Rahnaward, H. G., Ab Hamid, M. R., & Zakaria, R. (2015). Students’ attitudes towards learning statistics. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1660(1), 050035.

Saidi, S. S., & Siew, N. M. (2019). Assessing students’ understanding of measures of central tendency and attitude towards statistics in rural secondary schools. International of Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(1), 73-86. https://doi.org/10.12973/iejme/3968

Schau, C., Millar, M., & Petocz, P. (2012). Research on attitudes towards statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 11(2), 2-5.

Schau, C. (2003, August). Students’ attitudes: The “other” important outcome in statistics education. Paper presented at the Joint Statistical Meetings, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. New Jersey, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tay, M. G. (2003). Satu tinjauan terhadap sikap dan masalah guru Bahasa Melayu di sekolah rendah jenis kebangsaan [A survey on attitudes and problems of Malay Language teachers at primary schools]. Research Journal of Batu Lintang Teacher College / Jurnal Penyelidikan Maktab Perguruan Batu Lintang, 4, 16-25.

Tempelaar, D. T., van Der Loeff, S. S., & Gijselaers, W. H. (2007). A structural equation model analyzing the relationship of students’ attitudes toward statistics, prior reasoning abilities and course performance. Statistics Education Journal, 6(2), 78-102.

VanHoof, S., Kuppens, S., Castro Sotos, A. E., Verschaffel, L., & Onghena, P. (2011). Measuring statistics attitudes: Structure of the survey of attitudes toward statistics. Statistics Education Research Journal, 10(1), 35–51.

Van Sonderen, E., Sanderman, R., & Coyne, J. C. (2013). Ineffectiveness of reverse wording of questionnaire items: Let’s learn from cows in the rain. Plos One, 8(7), e68967. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068967

Zhang, Y., Shang, L., Wang, R., Zhao, Q., Li, C., Xu, Y., & Su, H. (2012). Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring. BMC Medical Education, 12(117), 1-8.