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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE

'Evolution' Search Results



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Biological evolution stands out as critically important content for K-12 education as it is considered a cornerstone of the biological sciences. Yet, it remains one of the most socially controversial topics related to science education. In this exploratory study, we are seeking to understand the ways elementary preservice teachers (PSTs) use their views of science to justify including or excluding alternative explanations to evolution in the science curriculum. This investigation included 76 PSTs who were enrolled in an elementary science methods course. Data came from an activity designed by the authors entitled “Science in the Public Schools – School Board Scenario.” The scenario proposed that the local school board was considering a motion to alter the science curriculum by introducing creationism and intelligent design (ID) to the unit on biological evolution and the PSTs had to offer their informed recommendations. The two researchers independently read and coded the data using an inductive, constant comparative approach. Findings revealed that 32 would not add creationism or ID, 26 would add both, 9 would add creationism, 6 would add ID, and 3 would only mention them. PSTs came up with diverse explanations for their decision on if to include alternative explanations when teaching evolution. Common rationales emerged within each group and are further explored.

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10.12973/ijem.3.1.1
Pages: 1 - 15
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Altruism and Popularity

altruism popularity evolutionary psychology social psychology

Eda Egilmez , Janett Naylor-Tincknell


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Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and determined by group members. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, cooperating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could affect individuals' popularity. Altruism has been studied in different disciplines with the general definition of cooperative behavior that has a cost to the actor with a benefit to the receiver. The common theme in all perspectives is that there is an inevitable cost for the actor with a benefit to the receiver. During the current research, surveys and vignettes were used to collect data. Participants were recruited through an online site, and were compensated for their time and participation via payment of money. As a result of the research, it was observed that helpful behaviors were highly related to the items of empathy, likeability, and popularity. Findings suggest that when gratefulness and helpful behaviors are present, individuals are rated higher in several positive qualities. The unique finding of the study is that both gratefulness and altruism are highly effective resources in interpersonal relations. Purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between altruistic behaviors that are towards friends and popularity by the endorsement of aforementioned hypotheses and theories.

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10.12973/ijem.3.2.65
Pages: 65-74
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In the study, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the learning cycle model on the achievements of the students. Doctorate and master theses, made between 2007 and 2016, were searched using the keywords in Turkish and English. As a result of the screening, a total of 123 dissertations, which used learning cycle models to increase the achievement of students, were included in the analysis. As a result of this study, it is confirmed that the effect of learning cycle models on students’ achievement is positive and the determined effect size was found out as 1.164 (% 95 CI, SE = .071) according to random effects model.. In the study, moderator analysis was made according to the learning cycle models, type of the dissertations, disciplines, and education levels of students. The analyses showed that among the learning cycle models, the highest effect size was determined in the 4E Model (2.659), among the dissertations the highest effect size was in master thesis (ES = 1.231), among the disciplines the highest effect size was in the other lessons (ES = 1.637) and among the educational levels the highest effect size was in the high school students (ES = 1.237).

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.1.1
Pages: 1-18
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1452
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1959
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5

Prospective Teachers' Views on Beauty Criteria

beauty criteria painting prospective teachers’ opinion survey method

Huseyin Uysal , Adem Yilmaz


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Art is one of the most powerful ways of expressing an individual's internal state, expectations and needs with an aesthetic attitude. Different materials can be used during the expression process including colour, line, sound, movement, word, object and so on. Although the materials used in these branches of art are different from each other, the path followed in the application process and the final results are the same “to reveal an aesthetic product”. In order for an artistic practice to mature and reach the beautiful one, the practitioner must have the art education discipline and acquire certain knowledge, skills and understanding of the art field concerned. The art of painting, which is one of the plastic arts, provides the ability to search for beauty through lines and colours on two dimensional surfaces, to create compositions and express the individual's self with this composition, also has its own beauty value criteria. From this point of view, it was aimed to determine the opinions of the prospective teachers studying in the Department of Painting Education in the study about the beauty criteria that should be in the picture. In this study, survey method which is one of the quantitative research methods was preferred. As a data collection tool, a five - point Likert - type scale was developed by the researchers, and 25 items were used. 110 prospective teachers from various grades participated in the study. The results of the research showed that the prospective teachers greatly contributed to the beauty criteria that should be in the picture.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.337
Pages: 337-346
cloud_download 509
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509
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1052
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2

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This article focuses on the influence of academic training, job issues, personality and demographic characteristics of school counselors on their professional identity construction, which is developed in a theoretical model based on educational-psychological theories. Most of the training in Master's degree studies in school counseling is incompatible with actual job demands; Consequently, when beginning work, school counselors lack suitable training and relevant professional tools. Moreover, in Israel and elsewhere, the definition of school counseling is unclear and inconclusive, and this affects the counselors' professional identity and the quality of their work. The proposed model of the variables that affect school counselors’ professional identity may enhance the relationship between academia and the field, with the aim of promoting academic excellence and a well-formulated professional identity for the profession of school counseling, as well as improving the employment terms of school counselors, in light of the challenges facing higher education systems in the 21st century.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.513
Pages: 513-523
cloud_download 873
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873
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1341
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7

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5

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This research aims to reveal the first-year experiences of social studies teachers who have just started their profession in the public sector. Also, it aims to reveal what awaits teachers in the school environment and the current experiences of teachers at the beginning of the profession. Case study design, one of the qualitative research designs, was used in the study. The study group of the research consists of 34 social studies teachers working in secondary schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education (Turkey) in the districts of Ankara. Participants were selected on an equal basis from all districts of Ankara province. Purposeful sampling, one of the non-random sampling methods was used in determining participants. In addition, criterion sampling was also used in the purposeful sampling phase. The obtained data were subjected to the content and descriptive analysis. As a result of the research, following the latest changes and developments and developing their basic knowledge and skills seems important for teachers who started their profession in the public sector. The multidisciplinary of the social studies branch, attractivity, and the fact that there are no alternatives comes to the fore in teachers' decision-making process to become social studies teachers. In addition, teachers participating in the research suggested to new teachers that they should master their fields, maintain their personal development, get to know the target group, and maintain strong communication in school.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.171
Pages: 171-185
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941
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1008
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3

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In the current study, the problems posed by pre-service primary school teachers within the context of semi-structured problem formation were analyzed according to their type, cognitive structure, and content knowledge. A total of 134 pre-service primary school teachers attending a state university in Turkey participated in the current study designed in line with the case study design. The pre-service teachers were presented with a table and they were asked to establish a problem suitable for the elementary level using the data given in the table. The data were collected through the established problem statements and written explanations of the participants. The collected data were analyzed by using both content and descriptive analyses. The findings have revealed that the pre-service teachers less preferred real-life problems than routine type of problems and the problems at the level of reasoning than the problems at the levels of knowing and applying. Moreover, nearly half of the pre-service teachers erroneously expressed the grade level for which they established their problem. The results have shown that the pre-service teachers do not adequately use real-life problems and problems at the level of reasoning and that there are deficiencies in their mathematical content knowledge depending on their knowledge of the curriculum.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.577
Pages: 577-590
cloud_download 851
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851
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1092
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4

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4

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The aim this qualitative study is to determine current situation of policy on teacher employment model in Turkey from the perspectives of contracted teachers. The sample of the study consisted of 24 forms and branch teachers who were determined with the method of convenience sampling. The inclusion criterion for the sample was being contracted teachers who were employed in the provinces of Erzurum and Sanliurfa in Turkey in the academic year of 2017-2018. The data of the study was collected by using a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions. The data was analyzed by using the qualitative research method of content analysis. The findings of the study were discussed under the themes of the objective of contracted teaching, its negative aspects, and the future of the practice and solution recommendations. According to the results of the study, the vast majority of the participants were aware of the objectives of the practice of contracted teaching. The participants thought that the practice provided continuity in instruction-teaching and teachers at the schools they were appointed to. The vast majority of the participants were of the opinion that the practice of contracted teaching led to status discrimination as tenured-contracted teachers, and this reduced their motivations and organizational commitment. They stated that this practice carried negative aspects in terms of postgraduate education and being prospective teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.671
Pages: 671-682
cloud_download 588
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588
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891
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8

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7

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This research aims to explore the effectiveness of interdisciplinary education program based on multicultural education on the tolerance value, attitude and critical thinking skills of the fourth grade primary school students. Single group pre-posttest design has been used in the study. The research has been carried out with 30 fourth-grade students, at a primary school located within the district of Karakocan in Elazig during the 2015-2016 academic year. Among the participants, 15 are females and 15 are males. The research has employed Tolerance Attitude Scale developed by Kaptan-Yarar, tolerance value and critical thinking story tests and scoring rubrics. Descriptive statistics and dependent samples t-test have been used during data analysis. Research results have revealed a statistically significant difference between critical thinking scoring rubric, tolerance value scoring rubric and tolerance attitude scale pretest-posttest scores in favor of posttest. Based on these results, it can be said that the interdisciplinary curriculum developed based on multicultural education improves students' critical thinking skills, tolerance value and attitudes.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.43
Pages: 43-55
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1620
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2074
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22

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The flipped classroom model is an educational model in which students study at their homes and reinforce their knowledge in the classroom with exercises and activities. This model is currently being used by many Turkish schools, especially the ones that give information technologies education. In this study, it is aimed to understand the learning experience by using this model in history lessons in higher education. For research purposes, 5 weeks long program was modified according to the Flipped Classroom (FC) model. This program was implemented and the views and opinions of the participants were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire. The study group is comprised of students that took Ataturk’s Principles and the History of the Turkish Revolution (APHTR) Course during the 2016-2017 fall period at Gazi University in Turkey. Phenomenological analysis was used for data analysis. The results show that the most of the participants see many opportunities in this model. These include the permanent learning, entertaining lessons, interaction, functionality, and high motivation. But the model also poses challenges. Those challenges are problems regarding the long educational videos, wrong content, technical problems, and activities. The participants recommended videos to include more animation and to be shorter, and activities to be improved.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.113
Pages: 113-121
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1832
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1694
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Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient between item g and test score X, known as item–test or item–total correlation (Rit), and item–rest correlation (Rir) are two of the most used classical estimators for item discrimination power (IDP). Both Rit and Rir underestimate IDP caused by the mismatch of the scales of the item and the score. Underestimation of IDP may be drastic when the difficulty level of the item is extreme. Based on a simulation, in a binary dataset, a good alternative for Rit and Rir could be the Somers’ D: it reaches the ultimate values +1 and –1, it underestimates IDP remarkably less than Rit and Rir, and, being a robust statistic, it is more stable against the changes in the data structure. Somers’ D has, however, one major disadvantage in a polytomous case: it tends to underestimate the magnitude of the association of item and score more than Rit does when the item scale has four categories or more.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.207
Pages: 207‒221
cloud_download 1164
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1164
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1748
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16

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The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast faculty and graduate students’ perceptions of engaging online courses. This mixed-methods study occurred in a mid-sized state university in northeastern United States. Data from an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that graduate students and faculty perceived similar online course elements in the areas of social and teaching presence as engaging: interpersonal connections, structured learning environments, and variety in course activities and type of technology used. Both believed that poor organization was unengaging. Subtle differences in perception were illuminated by the qualitative analysis. The results have implications for online course pedagogy and research methodology.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.223
Pages: 223-236
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1235
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1253
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4

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Kelley’s Discrimination Index (DI) is a simple and robust, classical non-parametric short-cut to estimate the item discrimination power (IDP) in the practical educational settings. Unlike item–total correlation, DI can reach the ultimate values of +1 and ‒1, and it is stable against the outliers. Because of the computational easiness, DI is specifically suitable for the rough estimation where the sophisticated tools for item analysis such as IRT modelling are not available as is usual, for example, in the classroom testing. Unlike most of the other traditional indices for IDP, DI uses only the extreme cases of the ordered dataset in the estimation. One deficiency of DI is that it suits only for dichotomous datasets. This article generalizes DI to allow polytomous dataset and flexible cut-offs for selecting the extreme cases. A new algorithm based on the concept of the characteristic vector of the item is introduced to compute the generalized DI (GDI). A new visual method for item analysis, the cut-off curve, is introduced based on the procedure called exhaustive splitting.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.237
Pages: 237 - 258
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918
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1180
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6

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A new index of item discrimination power (IDP), dimension-corrected Somers’ D (D2) is proposed. Somers’ D is one of the superior alternatives for item–total- (Rit) and item–rest correlation (Rir) in reflecting the real IDP with items with scales 0/1 and 0/1/2, that is, up to three categories. D also reaches the extreme value +1 and ‒1 correctly while Rit and Rir cannot reach the ultimate values in the real-life testing settings. However, when the item has four categories or more, Somers’ D underestimates IDP more than Pearson correlation. A simple correction to Somers’ D in the polytomous case seems to lead to be effective in item analysis settings.  In the simulation with real-life items, D2 showed very few cases of obvious underestimation and practically no cases of obvious overestimation. With certain restrictions discussed in the article, D2 seems to be a good alternative for these classic estimators not only with dichotomous items but also with the polytomous ones. In general, the magnitudes of the estimates by D2 are higher than those by Rit, Rir, and polychoric correlation and they seem to be close of those of bi- and polyserial correlation coefficients without out-of-range values.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.297
Pages: 297-317
cloud_download 420
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420
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971
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This article proposes that the reader be nourished by avant-garde elements for new educational practices in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The writing is based on an investigation that was carried out with high school students from Puerto Rico. From a qualitative paradigm with a research design in action, it was explored how students in higher grades resolve situations within their environment. Emphasis was placed on how they analyze through situations in context, and how they build knowledge through the search for a possible solution to the problem through the Project Based Learning strategy. The emphasis in treatment was for students to experience a transdisciplinary environment. Their impressions from the study were the revealing focus of how students learn when they are presented with a situation in their environment, taking roles themselves, solving them it through a project. As part of the project they used their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve the situation. Similarly, they learned mathematical concepts that are part of the Trigonometry course and that are measured in the academic achievement tests called PR Goals, previously known as Puerto Rican Academic Achievement Tests (PPAA).

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.405
Pages: 405-421
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574
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1145
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Trust Perception from the Eyes of Children

trust family value value education

Huseyin Mertol , Mevlut Gunduz


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One adds meaning into his/her own life thanks to several values (reliance, respect, tolerance, benevolence, responsibility, justice, etc.). While the foundation of these values is laid at early ages, they might undergo several changes thanks to life experiences. Thus, the perceptions of the interviewee regarding that value are to be taken into consideration while teaching values. This study is assumed to raise awareness and to lead similar other studies. This study is in the form of a research article. The purpose of this qualitative research is to find out the views and opinions of students on trust values, taught in social sciences courses. In the research, the case study method was applied. The research was conducted in Zubeyde Hanim Primary School in Isparta, in the 2017-2018 academic year towards the end of the second semester on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd graders. Students differ in parents' education level, gender and age. In the study, data were collected by a semi-structured interview form. Four experts’ opinions were consulted to ensure the reliability of the study. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and content analysis methods. According to the findings obtained, it is observed that students differ in trust values, desired to be acquired in social sciences courses, depending on grade level and gender. We may state the fact that the interaction of the child with his/her environment has been affecting the value of reliance since very early ages and that the meaning added into reliance might differ as the child gets older.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.447
Pages: 447-454
cloud_download 406
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406
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721
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2

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This study investigated the influence of teachers’ classroom management on pupils’ motivation for learning and academic achievement in Kwara State. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The population was all primary teachers and pupils in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State. The sample size was 250 teachers and all pupils in their classrooms. One research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The instruments used to collect data were researchers’ developed instruments titled ‘Teachers’ Classroom Management Style Observation Scale (TCMOS) and Pupils’ Motivation for Learning Rating Scale (PMLRS) with reliability coefficients of 0.82 and 0.86 respectively. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that there was significant influence of classroom management styles on pupils motivation for learning (F(1,248) = 121.155, p < 0.05) and their academic achievement (F(1,248) = 28.947, p < 0.05). It was therefore recommended that teachers should be encouraged to adopt appropriate classroom management to motivate pupils to learn for improved academic achievement. Also, courses on classroom management and leadership should be integrated into the teacher training curriculum while regular retraining of in-service teachers should be encouraged.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.471
Pages: 471-480
cloud_download 3106
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3106
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2954
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6

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Progress monitoring of academic achievement is an essential element to prevent learning disorders. A prominent approach is curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Various studies have documented positive effects of CBM on students’ achievement. Nevertheless, the use of CBM is associated with additional work for teachers. The use of tablets may be of help here. Yet, although many advantages of computer- or tablet-based assessments are being discussed in the literature (e. g. innovative item formats, adaptive testing, automated scoring and feedback), there are still concerns regarding the comparability of different assessment modes (paper-pencil vs. tablet). In the study presented, we analyze the CBM data of 98 fourth graders. They processed the exact same computation items once with paper and pen and once in a tablet application. The analyses point to comparable results in the test modes, although some significant deviations can be found at item level. In addition, the children report perceived benefits when working with the tablet.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.669
Pages: 669-680
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1134
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1482
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13

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Motivation for school is an important concept which influences students’ academic, social and cultural development. Leadership behaviours to be displayed by school principals can be thought to affect the network of social relations in school and to support the climate of trust in school for students to develop positive attitudes towards the school. In this context, this paper aims to analyse the correlations between school principals’ social justice leadership behaviours, students’ trust in school principals and motivation for school. The study group was composed of 762 secondary school students from Altindag district of Ankara. The data were collected with social justice leadership scale, trust in the school principal scale and motivation for the school scale. The data were put to descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The findings demonstrated that students had moderate level of perceptions of school principals’ social justice leadership behaviours and trust in school principals and high level of motivation for school. Besides, significant correlations were also found between the variables. Additionally, it was found that social justice leadership predicted significantly trust in school principals and motivation for school. The findings showed that the social justice leadership behaviors of the school principal play a key role on students’ motivation and their trust in the principals.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.775
Pages: 775-788
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1072
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1157
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2

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Although Goodman–Kruskal gamma (G) is used relatively rarely it has promising potential as a coefficient of association in educational settings.  Characteristics of G are studied in three sub-studies related to educational measurement settings. G appears to be unexpectedly appealing as an estimator of association between an item and a score because it strictly indicates the probability to get a correct answer in the test item given the score, and it accurately produces perfect latent association irrespective of distributions, degrees of freedom, number of tied pairs and tied values in the variables, or the difficulty levels in the items. However, it underestimates the association in an obvious manner when the number of categories in the item is more than four. Towards this, a dimension-corrected G (G2) is proposed and its characteristics are studied. Both G and G2 appear to be promising alternatives in measurement modelling settings, G with binary items and G2 with binary, polytomous and mixed datasets.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.95
Pages: 95-118
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922
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