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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE

'learning outcomes' Search Results

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Digital storytelling has undergone extensive study in different content-areas, but its naturally-combined use with collaborative writing for skills development, and reflective practice remains underresearched in pre-service EFL teacher education. This study undertook joint tech-enhanced retelling of L2 texts by 56 Turkish EFL teacher candidates, rubric-based peer and teacher assessment of final products, comparative analysis of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) between outliers, and process evaluation using the significant learning taxonomy to explore impacts on L2 writing performance, academic learning, and personal growth. Despite assigning lower scores than the teacher-assessors, especially to the top-performers, the majority of peers successfully fulfilled the job, effectively performed the future reviewer role, and positively reacted to co-construction, and technology integration. CAF and reflection analyses indicated that the biggest difference between the highest- and lowest-scoring groups lay in grammatical accuracy, and lack of mutual interaction could account for the less cooperative group’s poorer performance. The classification of their post-task responses into six kinds of learning gains (foundational knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, and learning how to learn) also revealed that their collaborative digital storytelling experience (CDS) elicited more procedural, critical, creative and practical thinking on the academic learning front, while disciplinary and integrative thinking may have declined due to more immediate preoccupation with task achievement. Their critical thinking was mainly organised around consensus-reaching, fluctuating membership, and logistical challenges, and most demonstrated a clear understanding of the role of positive group dynamics in group outcomes. Despite heightened awareness of the performance-boosting, character-forming, and motivational benefits of collective scaffolding and multimodal meaning-making, a minority could also discern the instrumentality of innovative teaching techniques in their future classroom practices.

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10.12973/ijem.6.3.555
Pages: 555-569
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684
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1216
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Decline in students’ motivation to learn languages remains a vexing issue for teachers and educators. Among a myriad of factors that affect student motivation, teachers’ practices appear to play a very dominant role. This has been reflected in the rising number of studies that examine teachers’ motivational strategies. This study aims to determine the specific teacher strategies which are most likely to positively affect the motivation of Arab learners of English from the perspective of learners. Some 400 teenage learners of English responded to an open-ended question in which they were asked to freely describe the strategies their teachers used that motivated them to learn. The results of the study suggest that the majority of students prefer strategies that promote communicative uses of the language to ones that focus on grammar or emphasize learning through texts. Many students also reported that they had more interest in studying English when their teachers integrated technology. It is therefore recommended that teachers give more weight to these motivating strategies by incorporating more communicative use of English and more technology into their lessons.

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10.12973/ijem.6.3.579
Pages: 579-586
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1160
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1097
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The purpose of this research is to test the theoretical model developed for the mediator role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between organizational identity and organizational stress. The research is conducted with 320 teachers who work in preschools, primary schools, elementary schools, and high schools. The data were collected using organizational stress scale, perceived organizational support scale, organizational identity scale, and personal information form. The direct and indirect relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational stress, and level of organizational identity were analysed using the Structural Equation Model. The proposed structural model was verified by the analyses. It is observed that the relationships between all variables in the research have significant values and their goodness of fit indices were within the acceptable level. The results of the analyses showed that, organizational identity significantly predicts organizational stress and perceived organizational support. It was also found that the impact of organizational identity on organizational stress was fully mediated by perceived organizational support. According to these results, organizational support plays a mediating role in the relationship between organizational identity and organizational stress.

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10.12973/ijem.6.4.643
Pages: 643-652
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1213
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Astronomy concept is regarded as one difficult topic in both teachers’ and students’ perspective even though it strongly appeals to the human mind. This concept requires imagination and the ability to use various skills and knowledge, for example, actual motion, relative position, and coordination of views from several points on the Earth to generate an explanation.  As mentioned in the literature, the teacher plays a vital role in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate 45 in-service science teachers’ understanding of astronomy concepts in a professional development program and to diagnose the misconceptions regarding astronomy concepts. A two-tier test, open-ended questions, and a semi-structured interview were used to gather information on the understanding and misconceptions, particularly on celestial motion concepts. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results pointed out that after the four-day professional development program, in-service science teachers gained significantly higher two-tier test scores. The highest progression was in the topic of the Sun’s apparent motion. However, most in-service science teachers still held some misconceptions relating to the concept of the seasons. The obstacles in teaching astronomy were also discussed. The study’s findings lead to the improvement of the professional development program for in-service science teachers required to teach astronomy concepts nationwide.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.745
Pages: 745-758
cloud_download 674
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674
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1016
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5

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Second Life Application for Creativity in Art and Design Education

creativity second life art and design education

Sevda Ceylan-Dadakoğlu , Vedat Özsoy


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This research aims at revealing the effects of Second Life (SL) application used in virtual environment in art and design education of creativity. This research is a qualitative study conducted evaluating the results of a group of 16 students studying art and design at universities, for a period of 12 weeks. For SL, a 3D, online, multi-user virtual environment was chosen as the study area.  The process of the research was evaluated by the researcher with a Structured Observation Form (SOF). Student designs were evaluated by four graduated artists/educators and researchers with a Rubric. The study group discovered SL during the application process. They made numerous trials, took risks and tried different solutions in SL. The design process that started with an avatar creation continued with 3D design, adding texture, colour, and script to objects and creating a notecard. According to the researcher’s feedback based on SOF, the group is considered “Good” in the design process. According to the Rubric for creativity, applied by the experts is evaluated as “Accomplished.” As for the rubric applied by the researcher, the group is evaluated “Good.” Based on these results, it can be considered that the inclusion of SL in the art and design education curriculum will contribute to 21st century skills and develop imagination and creativity of students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.759
Pages: 759-773
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412
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830
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2

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This quantitative study aims to examine the relationships between enabling school structure, academic optimism and altruistic behaviours as well as to find out whether altruistic behaviours serve as a mediator between enabling school structure and academic optimism. A scale was applied to teachers from primary- schools in Turkey via random sampling. There were 707 teachers participating in this study. Three existing scales, which are enabling school structure, academic optimism, and teachers’ altruistic behaviours scales, were used to collect data from teachers. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were calculated in the study to investigate correlations among all the variables and reliabilities of the measures. Structural Equation Modelling investigated the effects of Enabling School Structure on School Academic Optimism through Teachers’ Altruistic Behaviours. The results confirmed a positive relationship between all variables of the study. The findings also revealed the mediator effect of TAB on the relationship between ESS and SAO. Finally, some recommendations were given based on results.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.137
Pages: 137-154
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782
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968
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3

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Although Goodman–Kruskal gamma (G) is used relatively rarely it has promising potential as a coefficient of association in educational settings.  Characteristics of G are studied in three sub-studies related to educational measurement settings. G appears to be unexpectedly appealing as an estimator of association between an item and a score because it strictly indicates the probability to get a correct answer in the test item given the score, and it accurately produces perfect latent association irrespective of distributions, degrees of freedom, number of tied pairs and tied values in the variables, or the difficulty levels in the items. However, it underestimates the association in an obvious manner when the number of categories in the item is more than four. Towards this, a dimension-corrected G (G2) is proposed and its characteristics are studied. Both G and G2 appear to be promising alternatives in measurement modelling settings, G with binary items and G2 with binary, polytomous and mixed datasets.

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10.12973/ijem.7.1.95
Pages: 95-118
cloud_download 922
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922
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968
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The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency of children with mild intellectual disabled (MID) and to compare their FMS proficiencies in terms of age and gender. This study has three purposes. These are a) Defining the FMS proficiencies of the participants, b) Examining the FMS proficiencies of the participants in terms of gender variable, c) Examining the FMS proficiencies of the participants in terms of the age variable. Participants consisted of 122 MID students aged 7-10 years (M = 8.25, SD = 0.92). FMS proficiency was evaluated with the Gross Motor Development Test-Second Edition (TGMD-2). Independent Samples t test and ANOVA test were used to test the differences between groups. As a result: a) It was observed that the participants could not perform the FMS at the mastery level. Participants failed to demonstrate FMS proficiency appropriate for their age and showed delays in FMS compared to the TGMD-2 normative sample. Most of the participants performed “below average” and “poor” for LOC and OC skills. It was determined that the participants obtained higher scores in LOC subtest compared to OC subtest, b) It was determined that males were more proficiency in FMS and subtests than females, c) No difference was found in FMS proficiency in terms of age. These results show that opportunities need to be increased to develop the FMS proficiency.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.2.225
Pages: 225-233
cloud_download 765
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765
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1130
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2

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The objectives of this research were to: 1) Study the suitability of the indicators to be included in the model, 2) Test the consistency of the model developed from the theories and research studies’ empirical data, 3) Evaluate reliability value of the main components, the sub-components and other related indicators. The population used in the research were the teachers in the schools under the local administrative organization of Thailand. The multistage random sampling was used for the selection of 660 samples from a total population of 30,359 teachers across the country. The following results were observed: 1) All of the 52 indicators used in the research were appropriate according to the specified criteria, 2) The theoretical model was found to have been consistent with the empirical data. All of the statistical figures including; Relative Chi-Square, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness-of-Fit Index, Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index, Comparative Fit Index, and Normed Fit Index: NFI, were found to have met with the specified criteria in both the first and the second confirmation factor analyzes, and 3) The primary element’s factor loading was between 0.73 to 1.48, which is higher than the criteria of 0.70, the sub-element’s factor loading was between 0.67 to 1.72 and the indicators weight was between 0.68 to 1.37, which is higher than the criteria of 0.30. These results indicate that the theoretical model developed in this research can be effectively used with construct validity for the development of the targeted samples in a research study.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.2.235
Pages: 235-247
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210
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747
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Preschool Teachers’ Preparation Programs: The Use of Puppetry for Early Childhood Science Education

early childhood science education puppets teacher education teaching methods

Erdinc Ocal , Abdulhamit Karademir , Ozkan Saatcioglu , Beyza Demirel


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This paper investigated how puppetry could be used to improve the standards of early childhood science education. This study determined the effect of a puppet-making and puppetry workshop on preservice preschool teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards science education and looked into their experiences during and after puppet-making. Although participants faced some difficulties during the workshop, they developed numerous socioemotional skills. Puppetry activities can help preservice teachers learn how to deliver child-centered, stimulating, and interactive classes. Using puppets in early childhood science education can help teachers develop positive attitudes towards science and offer students high-quality, engaging, and creative activities.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.2.305
Pages: 305-318
cloud_download 1197
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1197
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1562
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3

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The research aims were to examine the relationship among psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels of physical education teachers employing in İzmir, Afyonkarahisar, and Muğla provinces in the Aegean Region and was to explain whether psychological resilience and patience levels predict happiness. The research was a descriptive study in the relational scanning model. The study participants consisted of 336 PE teachers, 182 (54.2%) were males, and 154 (45.8%) were females.. The data were obtained using the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Patience Scale and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. In the analysis of data were used SPSS 25 statistical program. The analysis of the data descriptive statistics, correlation, and statistical regression methods were used. As a result of the research, it was determined that the psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels were at medium levels according to the average score the PE teachers got from the scales. It was found that there is a moderate positive relationship between PE teachers' psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels, and psychological resilience and patience levels are a significant predictor of happiness.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.2.335
Pages: 335-351
cloud_download 817
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817
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1035
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5

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In modern times, the importance of education cannot be overstated. Beyond the acquisition of knowledge, perhaps the most important aim of education may be the development of character in individuals, including vitality, courage, sensitiveness, and intelligence, from which our society may experience increased prosperity, peace, and freedom. In this paper we address the daunting challenge of achieving successful, widespread, and inclusive university education. How do we enliven and engage the students in our classrooms? How can we help each and every student in the class self-actualize and reach the highest potential for learning? Active learning is one well-established and potent solution for accelerating the accumulation of knowledge. In this paper, an experiment in active learning utilizing team-based adaptive online quizzes in an introductory math finance course involving 378 undergraduate students over two years is conducted to explore the potency of this active learning methodology compared to a control group with traditional teaching. We find active learning unambiguously improves knowledge accumulation in the individual students, while simultaneously bolstering inclusive excellence across all students in the class, as measured by a relevant and meaningful quantitative metric. The paper concludes with a discussion comparing the quality of active vs. traditional teaching methods and offers interpretations of the quantitative results. The results of this paper support the widely accepted theme in the literature that active learning has a positive effect on student performance in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) courses.

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10.12973/ijem.7.2.353
Pages: 353-360
cloud_download 436
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436
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787
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2

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In the field of education, globally, teachers are recognised as important contributors in shaping learners’ interaction in a cooperative learning environment through effective lesson planning. There is a plethora of research conducted internally on lesson planning, as a critical instructional competency for good teaching and as a purposeful activity that precedes the delivery of instruction. This study aimed to explore Life Orientation teachers’ lesson planning incorporating a cooperative teaching and learning approach in secondary schools in De Aar, South Africa. The researchers adopted a mixed-methods phenomenological research design. Seven Grade 10 Life Orientation teachers were purposely selected to collect semi-structured interviews data, non-participatory observation, and document analysis. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and supported with the literature review and the theory underpinning this study. This paper suggests an enactment between teachers’ subject and pedagogical content knowledge and instructional material. Lastly, it is also evident that many teachers lack knowledge, insufficient instructional resources, and an understanding of effective lesson planning to implement a cooperative teaching approach.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.3.373
Pages: 373-386
cloud_download 1088
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1088
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1711
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2

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This study aimed at investigating the outcomes of the cooperation practices, which were utilized to enhance the quality of work-integrated learning at Nong Khai Technical College. The investigation covered the following three aspects: 1) the changes that had arisen from the development of specified indicators; 2) the learning that occurred, and 3) the body of knowledge, which had been obtained from the practice. A participatory action research methodology was adopted during two semesters. There were 19 teachers and 30 students involved in the project. The results of the study revealed three key features. Firstly, the post-practice evaluation in both the first and the second cycles was higher than in the pre-practice evaluation. Secondly, the researcher, research participants and the college learned from various issues of the practice. This learning included gaining an awareness of the importance of collaborative work, the importance of studying the theoretical perspective in order to enhance the existing knowledge and experiences, and the importance of planning, practice, observation, and reflection in comprehensive work. Finally, the knowledge gained was found to correlate with Kurt Lewin's Force-Field Analysis which consists of the following elements: 1) expected change, 2) driving factors for change, 3) resistance to change, and 4) overcoming resistance.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.3.387
Pages: 387-400
cloud_download 411
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411
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674
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The early phase is the decisive period for the teachers’ career. Intellectual styles (particularly thinking styles) play a vital role in teachers’ professional development. With the purpose of measuring thinking styles of teachers at the early phase, this study was designed to validate a revised inventory of thinking styles (TSI-R2) for pre-service and early career teachers. A sample of pre-service teachers (n = 248) were invited to join the pilot study and a sample of teachers with one year work experience (n = 252) participated in the main study. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed. The results suggested that with slight modification, TSI-R2 was a reliable and valid instrument to measure thinking styles of pre-service teachers and early career teachers, which has some implications to enhancing teacher education and development.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.421
Pages: 421-432
cloud_download 413
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413
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746
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3

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3

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This article introduces the concept of the carrying capacity of data (CCD), defined as an integrated, evaluative judgment of the credibility of specific data-based inferences, informed by quantitative and qualitative analyses, leavened by experience. The sequential process of evaluating the CCD is represented schematically by a framework that can guide data analysis and statistical inference, as well as pedagogy. Aspects of each phase are illustrated with examples. A key initial activity in empirical work is data scrutiny, comprising consideration of data provenance and characteristics, as well as data limitations in light of the context and purpose of the study.  Relevant auxiliary information can contribute to evaluating the CCD, as can sensitivity analyses conducted at the modeling stage. It is argued that early courses in statistical methods, and the textbooks they rely on, typically give little emphasis to, or omit entirely, discussion of the importance of data scrutiny in scientific research. This inattention and lack of guided, practical experience leaves students unprepared for the real world of empirical studies. Instructors should both cultivate in their students a true respect for data and engage them in authentic empirical research involving real data, rather than the context-free data to which they are usually exposed.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.447
Pages: 447-463
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352
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635
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2

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The article focused on the use of assessment for learning in promoting active learning and learner participation in mathematics. Assessment for learning (AfL) has been found to enhance learning and improve performance. However, teachers’ use of AfL to enhance active learning has not been clearly outlined. This study is part of the broader research study that explored mathematics teachers’ use of AfL to enhance mathematics teaching and learning in primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg. A case study research-type and a qualitative approach were used to collect data from mathematics teachers. Nine teachers were purposefully selected from whom data were collected using semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. The findings revealed that teachers had limited pedagogical knowledge in using AfL to promote active learning in their classrooms. They failed to apply a learner-centred approach that promotes effective learner participation in mathematics classrooms. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers undergo ongoing continuous development on classroom time management and planning for the effective use of AfL.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.3.473
Pages: 473-485
cloud_download 678
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678
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1075
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2

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Response times are one of the important sources that provide information about the performance of individuals during a test process. The main purpose of this study is to show that survival models can be used in educational data. Accordingly, data sets of items measuring literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills of the countries participating in Round 3 of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies were used. Accelerated failure time models have been analyzed for each country and domain.  As a result of the analysis of the models in which various covariates are included as independent variables, and response time for giving correct answers is included as a dependent variable, it was found the associations between the covariates and response time for giving correct answers were concluded to vary from one domain to another or from one country to another. The results obtained from the present study have provided the educational stakeholders and practitioners with valuable information.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.571
Pages: 571-586
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264
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715
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The following study highlights the importance of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) and provides a descriptive overview of the Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) organization competencies at both the national and state level. Qualitative data was collected during a study conducted on at-risk Hispanic high school students who engaged in a mindfulness yoga program. Adolescents voluntarily participated in 12 weeks of mindfulness yoga (24 classes) and provided post essay responses to questions associated with the five core competencies of SEL: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision making. Evidence aligned with SEL competencies after 24 mindfulness yoga sessions through implicit yoga instruction (absence of explicit direct instruction) were coded and reported accordingly. Overall, findings indicate consistencies with previous research on mindfulness yoga programs in the schools of the impactful benefits of healthy behaviors and mental wellness for adolescents at risk. Documented conclusions from this study showcase an increased positive impact on SEL categories of self-awareness, self-management, and decision making.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.615
Pages: 615-622
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494
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709
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To explore their role in enhancing graduate employability, the study investigated the effectiveness of student internships as pedagogical practices in promoting employability skills amongst graduating students in four Social Science Degree programmes of selected universities in Zambia. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 162 participants through the questionnaires and interview guides using a mixed-methods approach. The participants included different actors in the labour industry as critical informants; graduating students taking Social Science Degree Programmes; Lecturers, and Employers. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS version 24 and Atlas. Ti. Version 8, respectively. This study employed the Human Capability Approach and Human Capital theories. Findings indicated that although internship practices were considered an essential component in the social science degree programmes for skills development, their effectiveness in promoting employability skills amongst graduating students varied from one programme to the other. The findings have implications on how universities and the labour industry could work together to design and implement internship experiences for students in social science degree programmes that are more effective in promoting the acquisition of employability skills in Zambia.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.649
Pages: 649-668
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311
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641
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