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'special education' Search Results



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The aim of this study investigate to the reasons why the usage of Social Network Sites (SNS) makes users happy. To this end, the study was conducted with as a qualitative research method. The phenomenological design, which is a qualitative research method, was utilized for determining why SNS usage cause happiness and having a better to understand of how SNS users describe SNSs and what they feel about it. The study group was composed of 137 university students (60 males and 77 females) attending the Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Literature, and Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at a university in the southwestern of Turkey. A structured, open-ended interview was used as the data collection instrument. The contributors were asked the question “Why does SNS usage cause happiness?” and their answers were retrieved. The answers were encoded and entered to the NVivo software to conduct analyses. Based on the most frequent answers of the participants, three different experts were consulted and seven themes were created accordingly. These seven themes include Need for Stroke, Self-Concealment, Ease of Interaction, Ease of Accessing and Disseminating Information, Ease of Shopping, Leisure Activity, and Fear of Missing Out. Subcategories were also created for these seven themes. It was concluded that the theme of FoMO is nourished by all other themes.

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10.12973/ijem.4.3.109
Pages: 109-124
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This present study imparts a literature review focusing on Augmented Reality (AR) in the field of education. The writers reviewed the published manuscripts by centering on types of manuscripts, research designs, types of participants, and the promising roles of AR in educational setting. A total number of 18 articles were thoroughly analyzed. The results showed a diverse type of manuscripts published in the journal databases including research articles, reviews, technical notes, features, and news. Types of research designs also varied such as Research and Development, Experimental, Content Analysis, Exploratory, Action Research, Descriptive Study, Survey, Mixed Method, and Design-Based Research. Types of participants embraced a diverse range of participants including university students, primary students, secondary students, teachers, and children with special needs. The most prominent role of AR was that it improved students’ knowledge and understanding of the materials. Current gaps in AR-related studies in educational setting are recognized, and several recommendations for conducting upcoming studies are proposed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.3.125
Pages: 125-132
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Teacher Education Programs (TEPs) are intended to prepare students to become qualified professionals in the field of education. Yet, many preservice teachers (PSTs) have difficulty recognizing their new roles, not simply as students in the TEP, but as future educators. As PSTs progress through their coursework, field experiences, and student teaching, their perceptions of teacher knowledge evolves. Teacher educators may assist in positively influencing such transformation through reflective exercises, learning activities, and thoughtful discourse. The present research examines four classroom discussions centered on a mathematics and science activity. These discussions illustrate the changes in perspective with respect to mathematics and science teacher knowledge, among a cohort of elementary PSTs between the beginning and end of their first year in a TEP.   

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10.12973/ijem.4.4.227
Pages: 227-241
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334
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This research aims to combine the results of the studies conducted  in educational organizations between the years 2008-2018 that investigated correlation between organizational trust, and organizational support, organizational citizenship, organizational justice, organizational commitment, mobbing, organizational silence, job satisfaction, organizational cynicism and ethical leadership and obtain an overall result. Within this scope, meta-analytic method was used in the study. A literature review was performed by using the concepts "trust" and "organizational trust".  A total of 43 independent studies were incorporated into the research by considering the selection criteria determined by the researcher. The total sample size (teacher, academician and school administrator) is 22859. The studies included in the research were analyzed according to random effects model (REM). According to the results of the analysis, there is a high positive correlation between organizational trust, organizational justice [r = .70] and ethical leadership [r = .82]; a moderate positive correlation between organizational trust and organizational commitment [r = .51], organizational support [r = .57], organizational citizenship [r = .43] and job satisfaction [r = .61]. In addition, there was a moderate negative correlation between organizational trust, organizational cynicism [r = -.62] and organizational silence [r = -.30]; and also a low negative correlation between organizational trust and mobbing [r = -.24]. Based on these findings, the high level of organizational justice, organizational support and ethical leadership perceptions of the education stakeholders increase level of organizational trust; whereas the high level of organizational trust increases their job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational commitment, and reduces organizational cynicism and organizational silence perceptions. In addition, employees' exposure to mobbing causes a decrease in organizational trust levels.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.4.287
Pages: 287-302
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922
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12

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The aim of this research is to investigate ability of sixth grade students’ comprehension the listened story text. The research is the survey type of quantitative research methods. The population of the study consisted of the sixth grade students of the middle schools in the city center of Yozgat, Turkey in the 2018-2019 academic years. A simple random cluster sampling method was used in the selection of the sample. A total of 369 sixth grade students are sample. As a data collection, a story text entitled “Hero of the Town” was used. Data were collected in October 2018. SPSS 21 program was used to analyze the data. The level of listening comprehension the sixth grade students to the story text is 77.46%. It is seen that the sixth grade girl students’ listening comprehension are better than boy students. The girls’ listening comprehension is higher than boys’ %8. 

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.35
Pages: 35-42
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This study aims to conduct Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence. This study also aims to examine and improve early academic competence thoroughly on the basis of teachers’ ratings in Turkey, and lastly to contribute an assessment and measurement instrument to the literature which will enable to conduct further research in the field. This study was designed in a general survey model. The study included normally developing 619 36-72 month-old preschoolers attending to nursery classes and kindergartens affiliated to Afyonkarahisar Ministry of National Education in 2015-2016 academic year. The validity and reliability studies of the data obtained following the implementation of TRS-EAC, was completed. The Cronbach Alpha, split half test, test-retest reliability of the scale and its subscales were measured. TRS-EAC was found to be valid and reliable for 36-72 month-old children. It can be considered that the various studies that can be used TRS-EAC in Turkey will provide important contributions to the measurement power of this test.

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.43
Pages: 43-57
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In general, teacher educators are considered to be educational specialists whose main task is to communicate content-based concepts to prospective teachers. However, unfortunately, most studies on teacher professional development overlook this specific language-oriented aspect of content-based teaching. Therefore, we address the aforementioned research gap and argue that teacher educators’ evaluation of their language-oriented performance in educational communication enhances the quality of their content-based teaching. Accordingly, we examine how the language-oriented performance of teacher educators is evaluated by both individual teacher educators (sample size N=3) and their students (N=32) in a small-scale intervention study. The findings of the study reveal that there is a relationship between the order of application of five language focus areas (i.e., language awareness, active listening, formalizing interaction, language support, and language and learning development, as noticed by the students), and teacher educators’ ability to apply these areas in accordance with their objectives related to content-based teaching.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.71
Pages: 71-86
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520
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958
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This study aims to explore the effect of students’ family socio-economic status, gender, family support, learning motivation and peer relationships and teachers’ equity on the victims of school bullying in Hong Kong. Additionally, the model was analyzed by SEM. The participants in this study were 15 year-old middle school students living in Hong Kong. The data were collected from the PISA 2015 database and the valid number was 4856. The results indicating that family support, peer relationships, and teacher fairness have a negative influence on school bullying. Family support affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Peer relationship affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Teacher fairness affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation.  

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.111
Pages: 97-107
cloud_download 1044
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Universities are more than institutions only conducting research and educating students in today’s world. Changing conditions in the world show that there is a need for redefining the functions of universities. This is called the third mission of universities. Starting from this perspective, this study aims to examine, first, the missions of all state and private universities in Turkey within the framework of the “third mission,” one of the most important priorities of universities today. The study results show that universities in Turkey adopted the third mission understanding to a certain extent, and particularly with the influence of the Council of Higher Education (CHE). However, they should do more related to the continuing education (CE), and, partially, to the social engagement (SE) dimensions. While many of the world’s leading universities include concepts such as service-learning, public engagement, or outreach in their missions and programs in order to seek integration with the societies in which they exist and with all the stakeholders with whom they cooperate, collaborate, and conduct important related activities, it is a concern regarding Turkey’s future that many universities (about 23%) did not even reflect the third mission understanding in their mission statements.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.387
Pages: 387-400
cloud_download 1098
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871
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5

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Computational thinking is a way of thinking that covers 21st century skills and includes new generation concepts such as robotics, coding, informatics and information construction. Computational thinking has reached an important point especially in the field of science in line with the rapid developments in technology. Robotics applications, software-based activities, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) education and problem-based studies are some of the areas where this thinking is used. In this study, which is based on this point, it is aimed to develop a scale for computational thinking. Exploratory sequential design, one of the mixed research methods, was used in the study. First of all, a detailed literature review was conducted and needs analysis was carried out. This study consists of two stages. In the first stage, exploratory factor analysis was performed and analyzed with SPSS 23 program. In the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis was performed and analyzed with LISREL 9.2 program. As a result of the study, the goodness of fit indexes of the scale was found. According to this; X2/df value 1.81; NNFI value 0.97; NFI value 0.93; CFI value 0.98; RMR value 0.05; SRMR value 0.04; AGFI value 0.91 and GFI value was found to be 0.93. When the reliability values of the study were examined, Cronbach’s Alpha value was found to be 0.86. As a result of the research, a computational thinking scale consisting of 3 factors and 30 items was developed. This scale was developed for prospective teachers and can be used at all levels of prospective teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.421
Pages: 421-432
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1760
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Instructional Technologies and Material Design (ITMD) course on pre-service mathematics teachers’ attitudes, efficacy beliefs about using concrete materials, and their opinions regarding the material preparation process. A total of 73 pre-service teachers were participated in this study. The scale developed by Bakkaloglu was used to determine efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers about using concrete materials, and the attitudes scale developed by Cetin, Bagceci, Kinay and Simsek was used to determine the attitudes towards ITMD course. A written form was also used to reveal the opinions of pre-service teachers regarding the material preparation process. The qualitative data collected from 16 pre-service teachers was analyzed with the MAXQDA. Using content analysis, codes and themes were created separately by the researchers and analyzed through several iterations. As a result of this study, positive changes were found in the attitudes and efficacy beliefs of pre-service teachers. The results obtained from the opinions of the pre-service teachers support this positive change. In other words, it is possible to argue that the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards the material development process changed positively with the positive change in the efficacy beliefs about preparing materials after taking the ITMD course.

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10.12973/ijem.5.3.451
Pages: 451-463
cloud_download 795
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852
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3

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Teacher-made tests (TMT) are the most used instruments for assessment and evaluation. This study investigates the cognitive requirements, test construction errors, and item types of TMTs. Content analysis technique is used in order to analyze and classify TMT items based on TIMSS-2019 assessment framework and based on criteria that is constructed to determine test construction errors. The data is consisted of 548 items in 30 exam papers of 18 mathematics teachers from 13 distinct schools. The distribution of TIMSS-2019 cognitive demands of all TMTs indicates that there is a strong emphasis on knowing or applying cognitive domains, with a total percentage of 93. Since 83% of all questions are of multiple choice and 17% are constructed-response type, teachers mostly prefer multiple choice item type. Findings also reveal that except face validity, there are errors concerning test constructions. Consequently, it is suggested that teachers should give more care on preparing items of higher cognitive levels, on tests of mixed type items, and on tests that involve lesser construction errors for more reliable tests. Finally, it is also suggested that measurement and evaluation specialists should be employed in each school or in each local Ministry of National Education Authority at least, in order to support teachers, but if this is not possible in a close time, there must be in-service training programs on measurement and evaluation for teachers to participate in.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.479
Pages: 479-488
cloud_download 332
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332
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669
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“Mathematical knowledge for teaching” is a concept indicating the requirement for a specific kind of knowledge required to teach mathematics. Mathematical knowledge for teaching necessitates a more complex structure than what is required to carry out mathematical tasks and the knowledge to do that. The purpose of this study is to realize the adaptation of “Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching -Geometry (MKT-G)” Test that was initially conceived in English to Turkish (or to Turkish culture). During the adaptation process; after the translations of the items, focus group interviews were held with a group consisting of mathematics teacher educators and experienced mathematics teachers, and then the data from 243 elementary mathematics teachers was analyzed via  Item Response Theory (IRT). As a result of the analysis of the test items, psychometric values of the test items indicated that the items in the test performed well in Turkey. Besides, validity and reliability arguments were also tested. As a result, the Turkish version of the MKT-G test is highly reliable and valid to measure the teachers’ knowledge of teaching geometry.

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10.12973/ijem.5.4.547
Pages: 547-565
cloud_download 484
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484
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801
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4

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In the current study, the problems posed by pre-service primary school teachers within the context of semi-structured problem formation were analyzed according to their type, cognitive structure, and content knowledge. A total of 134 pre-service primary school teachers attending a state university in Turkey participated in the current study designed in line with the case study design. The pre-service teachers were presented with a table and they were asked to establish a problem suitable for the elementary level using the data given in the table. The data were collected through the established problem statements and written explanations of the participants. The collected data were analyzed by using both content and descriptive analyses. The findings have revealed that the pre-service teachers less preferred real-life problems than routine type of problems and the problems at the level of reasoning than the problems at the levels of knowing and applying. Moreover, nearly half of the pre-service teachers erroneously expressed the grade level for which they established their problem. The results have shown that the pre-service teachers do not adequately use real-life problems and problems at the level of reasoning and that there are deficiencies in their mathematical content knowledge depending on their knowledge of the curriculum.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.577
Pages: 577-590
cloud_download 787
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787
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884
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3

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4

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The main purpose of this research was to reveal the opinions of prospective teachers of special education teacher education program about special education schools and the special education field. This study was used the phenomenological designed. It involved 14 special education teachers of Harbiye Selman Nasir Eskicak Secondary School. The collected data were subjected to data mining by content analysis. Some results had been obtained regarding the dreams and problems and solutions proposed by prospective teachers in a special education institution and special education. It had been found out that prospective teachers design student-centered and differentiate the disability differences among individuals-oriented design when designing special education schools. In addition, they pointed out that there were some problems related to teachers, teaching environment, curriculum, legislation and parents in the field of special education. It had been seen that prospective teachers who produce solutions to these problems have awareness about the field. With the help of the results obtained from the study, suggestions about the special education field were developed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.607
Pages: 607-622
cloud_download 470
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470
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802
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3

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The flipped classroom model is an educational model in which students study at their homes and reinforce their knowledge in the classroom with exercises and activities. This model is currently being used by many Turkish schools, especially the ones that give information technologies education. In this study, it is aimed to understand the learning experience by using this model in history lessons in higher education. For research purposes, 5 weeks long program was modified according to the Flipped Classroom (FC) model. This program was implemented and the views and opinions of the participants were collected with a semi-structured questionnaire. The study group is comprised of students that took Ataturk’s Principles and the History of the Turkish Revolution (APHTR) Course during the 2016-2017 fall period at Gazi University in Turkey. Phenomenological analysis was used for data analysis. The results show that the most of the participants see many opportunities in this model. These include the permanent learning, entertaining lessons, interaction, functionality, and high motivation. But the model also poses challenges. Those challenges are problems regarding the long educational videos, wrong content, technical problems, and activities. The participants recommended videos to include more animation and to be shorter, and activities to be improved.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.113
Pages: 113-121
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1729
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1216
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The article provides an analysis of the literature on interactive cognitive strategies. The aim of the study is to examine the pedagogical potential of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher. The research used theoretical and empirical methods: analysis of theoretical sources, analysis and generalization of the experience of scientific and methodological developments, training of students of a pedagogical institution. The problem of developing scientific and methodological support for the use of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher is being updated. A generalization of the obtained results indicates that the use of interactive cognitive strategies positively affects the formation of the multilingual personality of the future teacher. The research was supported by within the framework of the project on research on priority directions of scientific activity of the universities-partners in networking (South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute) on the topic of “Linguodidactic foundations of the intercultural communicative competence formation of a future teacher”.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.147
Pages: 147-152
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383
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650
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2

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This study aimed to develop an instructional design that focuses on programming teaching for gifted and talented students and to investigate its effects on the teaching process. During the development of the instructional design; the steps of Morrison, Ross and Kemp Instructional Design Model were followed. Embedded experimental design, one of the mixed-method research designs, was used in the modeling of the study. The participants consisted of students studying at the Science and Art Center (BILSEM) (experimental group: 13 girls and 12 boys, control group: 10 girls and 15 boys). While the instructional design developed by the researchers was applied to the gifted and talented students in the experimental group, the standard activities used in Information Technologies and Software Courses at BILSEM were applied to the gifted and talented students in the control group. “Computational Thinking Scale (CTS)”, “Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TCTT-Figural)” and “Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale (CPSES)” were used to collect the data of the quantitative phase of the study. Qualitative data were gathered by using interview form, observation forms, and design thinking rubric. Two-Factor ANOVA Test, Bonferroni Adjustment Multiple Comparisons Test, and interaction graphs were used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. The quantitative results of the research showed that the instructional design was effective on students' computational thinking and creative thinking skills, but not on programming self-efficacy. Qualitative findings revealed that the instructional design helped the students learn the computational concepts, use computational applications, and develop computational-perspectives. Also, students improved their design thinking skills to a certain level and expressed that they enjoyed the design thinking process, learned the course content, and experienced some difficulties.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.161
Pages: 161-183
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Inclusive Education and Pedagogical Change: Experiences from the Front Lines

inclusion teacher change pedagogy

Monique Somma , Sheila Bennett


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Many educators hold beliefs that including students, at least to some degree, has academic and social benefits, however, they struggle with fundamental pedagogy. With a global shift from a segregated lens to that of an inclusive lens, special education teachers who once held positive beliefs towards segregated special education are now faced with a new reality of teaching students with disabilities in inclusive classroom settings. This paper highlights the experiences of ten educators who transitioned from teaching in a self-contained class to an inclusive class. Focus group and interview themes indicated that all had experienced a shift in their pedagogy- their overall beliefs and teaching methods- after they taught students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others, and systematic barriers within the education system. Highlights of their change process include the positive performance of students with disabilities, the growth and development of the other students, and their overall pedagogical self-reflection. As a result, a framework, the Inclusive Educators’ Continuum of Change, was developed to highlight the change process and connect this research to the literature on inclusion and teacher change. This diagram can provide teacher educators a framework for discussing pedagogical change. Implications for professional development and teacher training for inclusive practice, as well as maximizing the educator skills in Professional Learning Communities (PLC) and mentorship opportunities will be highlighted.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.285
Pages: 285-295
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This paper sought to investigate the mathematics teachers’ reflection on the role of Productive Pedagogies’ framework in festering effective classroom instruction. Two research objectives were used to discuss the reflection of the four mathematic teachers. A qualitative case study was adopted as the design of the study. Classroom observations, Research Journal and Reflective Interviews were organised to collect data for the study, while the narratives approach to data analysis was used to analyse the data collected. From the study, the mathematics teachers were able to gradually adjust to the new framework through effective reflective meetings with their colleagues and with the support of the researcher. They (mathematics teachers) reflected that, the framework helps them developed confidence, positive attitude and interest to their teaching practice. It helped fostered effective collaboration and created an atmosphere of trust between the mathematics teachers and their students. The study also suggested that the pedagogy influence the mathematics teachers to provide and received feedback from their colleagues and from their students. They were also of the view that there was a gradual shift from the traditional teacher centred instruction they are more conversant with to a more student-centred pedagogy. The implication of the study suggests the need to adopt the Productive Pedagogies framework into the Nigerian mathematics classroom to improve mathematics teacher’s classroom instruction.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.319
Pages: 319-335
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963
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1065
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