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'family structure' Search Results



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The first step towards discussing a phenomenon or a concept in depth and with powerful scientific principles and methodology is to develop, adapt and utilize tools that accurately measure and discover the problem. For this purpose, the present study concentrated on paternalistic leadership, which is a new concept in the field of management, and reliability and validity studies on the scale (PLS) that was used to assess paternalistic leadership by Cheng et al. (2004) were conducted to add the scale to the national literature. The study was conducted on the data collected from 326 (EFA) + 255 (CFA) research assistants to determine the validity of the scale. In a determination of the reliability of the scale, item-total point correlations and Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficient were used. In order to determine how the scale works in different cultural and qualitative samples, the adaptation version was discussed by comparing with the previous factor analysis studies of the PLS. The analysis showed that adaptation version of the PLS, with the structure of its 3 sub-dimensional and 23-items, will able to be used in studies aiming to determine the characteristics of paternalistic leadership in the organizational structure and management processes of universities for the researchers working in the field of higher education.

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10.12973/ijem.4.4.267
Pages: 267-285
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This study aims to explore the effect of students’ family socio-economic status, gender, family support, learning motivation and peer relationships and teachers’ equity on the victims of school bullying in Hong Kong. Additionally, the model was analyzed by SEM. The participants in this study were 15 year-old middle school students living in Hong Kong. The data were collected from the PISA 2015 database and the valid number was 4856. The results indicating that family support, peer relationships, and teacher fairness have a negative influence on school bullying. Family support affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Peer relationship affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation. Teacher fairness affects one’s risk of being bullied by influencing learning motivation.  

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.111
Pages: 97-107
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By using multi-level modeling, this study explores the impact of students’ perception of the quality of the teacher-student relationship and family structure on student achievement after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), school urbanicity, and school control. The data from 750 schools and 17,000 10th grade students were analyzed. Family structure and student’s perception of teacher-student relationship, and SES were student-level; school urbanicity and school control were school-level variables. The findings indicated that students, who had a positive perception about their relationship with their teachers, came from families including two biological parents, and had high SES and high math achievement. Students’ SES and attending public school in urban areas were found to be significantly related to students’ math achievement. The math score for public school students was lower than students from private and Catholic schools. The further research should have a design addressing the impact of these variables in a longitudinal term.

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.131
Pages: 117-133
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The aim of this research is to examine the psychological resilience levels of students studying in the Faculty of Sports Sciences according to some variables. The sample of the study consisted of Sports Sciences Faculty students of Duzce University, and the population consisted of 200 students from the Sports Sciences Faculty selected through a convenience sampling method. An eight-item personal information form developed by the researcher for demographic characteristics and ‘‘Short form of resilience scale’’ to determine resilience levels of participants were used. According to data obtained, while resilience levels, grades, gender, branch, department, age, and income variables of participants did not show a significant difference (p>0,05), it showed a significant difference according to sports age and place of living variables (p<0,05). Besides it was determined that resilience scores of male participants were higher than females, and team athletes had higher scores than individual athletes, lower classes had higher scores than upper classes, sports management students had higher scores than coaching and physical education and sports teaching students, and students who had younger age had higher scores than students who had older age. As a result of research, it was determined that resilience could be differed by class, sports age, residence variables. Also, it was revealed that sports age affects resilience negatively.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.393
Pages: 393-403
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989
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1113
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself and continues during the disorder’s course with symptoms of inadequacies in social interaction and communication, limited and repetitive behaviors and limited interests. It was stated that the burden and fatigue stemming from the long-term care of the child, changing family roles and routines, difficulties encountered during diagnosis and access to services, getting insufficient information about the diagnosis, the need for information to access appropriate education and rehabilitation services and the economic burden caused by satisfying this need, and the difficulties in participating in social life account for burnout in parents of children with ASD. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental burnout, and the perceived social support level of parents of children with ASD and their satisfaction level from this support. In addition to this main purpose, (a) the relationship between parental burnout level, and the ages of the children with ASD, the time since diagnosis and parental age, and (b) whether there is a difference in the parental burnout level according to parental education level and gender were examined in the study. Data was collected from the parents of 296 children who met the criteria for participation in the study using the Participant Information Form, Parental Burnout Scale and Revised Parental Social Support Scale. The study results revealed that there was a weak and moderate negative relationship between perceived social support and parental burnout.

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10.12973/ijem.6.3.533
Pages: 533-543
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Personalized Book Advice Smart Application on secondary school students’ motivation as well as determining the views of students, teachers, and parents regarding the application. In the research, a mixed method approach, in which quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis methods are used together, was adopted. In the quantitative part, 585 secondary school students, 300 of whom are in the experimental group and 285 in the control group; In the qualitative part, 105 students, 6 teachers and 247 families were included in the research. Similarly, the qualitative of the study involved 105 students, 6 teachers, and 247 parents. In the quantitative part of the research, data collected with the Reading Motivation Scale developed by Durmus. In the qualitative part, the data were collected through a questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed using parametric descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique. According to the findings obtained from the research, there is a significant difference in reading motivation of secondary school students in terms of post-test scores. It is seen that the students like to read adventure books and think that the books proposed by the application are suitable for their interests. Teachers state that they find the application successful, and they like that the application forms reading habits, and recommends books according to their interests, moreover, the recommended books are suitable for the students’ levels. On the other hand, the teachers think that teacher control is necessary. Additionally, parents state that they like the application because it recommends books according to the children’s interests and those recommended books were suitable for their levels, however, they added that the number of the books needs to be increased.

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10.12973/ijem.6.3.587
Pages: 587-602
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547
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941
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This quantitative study aims to examine the relationships between enabling school structure, academic optimism and altruistic behaviours as well as to find out whether altruistic behaviours serve as a mediator between enabling school structure and academic optimism. A scale was applied to teachers from primary- schools in Turkey via random sampling. There were 707 teachers participating in this study. Three existing scales, which are enabling school structure, academic optimism, and teachers’ altruistic behaviours scales, were used to collect data from teachers. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were calculated in the study to investigate correlations among all the variables and reliabilities of the measures. Structural Equation Modelling investigated the effects of Enabling School Structure on School Academic Optimism through Teachers’ Altruistic Behaviours. The results confirmed a positive relationship between all variables of the study. The findings also revealed the mediator effect of TAB on the relationship between ESS and SAO. Finally, some recommendations were given based on results.

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10.12973/ijem.7.1.137
Pages: 137-154
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What are missing in the U.S. education policy of “college for all” are supporting data and indicators on K-16 education pathways, i.e, how well all students get ready and stay on track from kindergarten through college. This study creates synthetic national longitudinal education database that helps track and support students’ educational pathways by combining two nationally-representative U.S. sample datasets: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten (ECLS-K; Kindergarten through 8th grade) and National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS; 8th grade through age 25). The merge of these national datasets, linked together via statistical matching and imputation techniques, can help bridge the gap between elementary and secondary/postsecondary education data/research silos. Using this synthetic K-16 education longitudinal database, this study applies machine learning data analytics in search of college readiness early indicators among kindergarten students. It shows the utilities and limitations of linking preexisting national datasets to impute education pathways and assess college readiness. It discusses implications for developing more holistic and equitable educational assessment system in support of K-16 education longitudinal database.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.683
Pages: 683-696
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517
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This study examined the effect of Yunnan’s ethnic minority college students’ acculturation on their academic achievement under the risk of the Matthew effect. Additionally, the role played by learning motivation in the relationship between ethnic minority college students’ acculturation and academic achievement was explored. A total of 403 valid questionnaires were collected from four areas in Yunnan province, China. Consequently, the Acculturation Scale, Academic Achievement Scale, and Learning Motivation Scale were used for measurement materials. These items of scales were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) and AMOS (analysis of a moment structures) softwares were used for data analyses. In addition, items were analyzed through item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis. These results indicated that ethnic minority college students with low acculturation and learning motivation or high acculturation and low learning motivation can become objects of the Matthew effect. However, this study also observed that in certain students, high acculturation and high learning motivation can prevent the Matthew effect. Thus, high acculturation is crucial for improving academic achievement in ethnic minority college students. A level of high learning motivation is a powerful moderator promoting the academic achievement of students with high acculturation.

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10.12973/ijem.8.2.199
Pages: 199-210
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This research’s aim was to explore the role of cognitive flexibility in mediating the effect of intrinsic motivation on the creativity of junior high school students. A creativity scale, an intrinsic motivation inventory and a cognitive flexibility inventory were utilized to investigate a sample of junior high school students in Shaanxi Province in western China. 765 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed using the structural equation model (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that intrinsic motivation and cognitive flexibility have significantly positive impacts on junior high school students’ creativity. Furthermore, a full model revealed that cognitive alternatives and cognitive control mediate the relationship intrinsic motivation and creativity, and the mediation effect of cognitive alternatives is significantly greater than that of cognitive control. In general, the current research suggests that the impact of intrinsic motivation on junior high school students’ creativity is mediated by cognitive flexibility, and its results amplify prior scholars’ research results and give educators an inspiration how to cultivate creativity for the middle school students.

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10.12973/ijem.8.2.297
Pages: 297-312
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451
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600
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Work environments are pivotal to teachers’ professional development. However, effective instruments assessing teachers’ perceived work context are still lacking. The principal aim of the present study was to validate a Work Environments Inventory for Teachers (WEIT) constructed using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Two studies were implemented on two independent samples totaling 696 (232 for Study 1 and 464 for Study 2) schoolteachers in Mainland China. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to cross-validate the WEIT. The external construct validity of the WEIT was estimated through investigating its connection with the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory. Findings indicated that the WEIT is an adequate measure to map the characteristics of work environments for schoolteachers. Limitations are discussed and implications for future studies are suggested.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.647
Pages: 647-654
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580
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The Challenging Path of Welcoming and Inclusion of Foreign Students in Schools: A Systematic Review

interculturality migration school coexistence school inclusion school integration welcoming

María Rodríguez Riquelme , María Belén Ortega-Senet , Caterine Galaz , Andrew Philominraj


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Interculturality, inclusion, and diversity are generally associated with bilingualism in countries with different socio-cultural identities, but rarely with school coexistence among students hailing from different backgrounds. The present systematic review is framed in a descriptive-qualitative approach since its main objective is to provide an account of the relationship between welcoming, school coexistence, and the integration and inclusion processes in schools in countries receiving foreign migrant families. For this purpose, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EBSCO, and SCiELO databases were searched using a reference chain, and according to search results, 26 empirical studies retrieved from those databases published between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The main findings indicate that the inclusion process is developed through the acculturation and disciplining devices of foreign children to the dominant national logic, which marks a hierarchical difference between nationalities. They also highlight the recognition of cultural diversity under the logic of folklorization and a vision that focuses on academic achievement rather than on the particularities that cultural diversity can contribute to social relations and learning within the school.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.801
Pages: 1-18
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321
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The objective of this study was to develop a measure that possesses both reliability and validity in order to evaluate innovative thinking within the realm of education. To achieve this, the instrument's validity and reliability were evaluated through quantitative methods in two distinct phases. A team of educational experts conducted the process of establishing content validity and ensuring that the items on the instrument accurately reflected the intended constructs of creative thinking. Following that, the assessment of concept validity was conducted using confirmatory factor analyses. The aforementioned investigations resulted in the discovery of a five-factor solution consisting of 25 elements, all of which demonstrated scores beyond the crucial threshold. This successful outcome confirmed the presence of distinct factors representing different dimensions of innovative thinking. The study enrolled 1250 students from vocational education institutions as participants. The data obtained from the participants was subjected to principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, leading to the development of a model that exhibited a good match with the empirical data. This indicated the effectiveness of the developed instrument in measuring innovative thinking capacity. In conclusion, the research effectively developed an accurate and dependable tool for evaluating innovative thinking in the realm of education. The gathering of positive data from the participants and meticulous quantitative analyses were responsible for this.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.835
Pages: 35-44
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282
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537
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Examining the academic locus of control, procrastination, and school satisfaction is crucial for understanding student well-being and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential mediating role of academic procrastination in the association between academic locus of control and school satisfaction in a sample of adolescents (N = 628; Mage = 13.30, SD = 1.74) residing in various regions of Azerbaijan. The results revealed that higher levels of internal locus of control were positively related to school satisfaction, while increased levels of external locus of control were negatively associated with school satisfaction. The analysis using structural equation modeling showed that school satisfaction was partially influenced by academic procrastination, which acted as a mediator in the relationship between internal locus of control and school satisfaction. Additionally, academic procrastination fully mediated the relationship between external locus of control and school satisfaction. These findings were further discussed in the context of existing literature, and recommendations were provided for future research in this area.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.893
Pages: 93-101
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187
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413
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This study sought to examine the influence of transcription skills, evaluated using graphonomic measures, on the proficiency of text generation in students attending primary schools in Spain. A longitudinal design was employed involving 278 Spanish students distributed across three cohorts (cohort 1: 1st-2nd-4th grade; cohort 2: 2nd-3rd-5th grade; and cohort 3: 3rd-4th-6th grade). Two data collection points were used to administer the graphonomic measures, and a composition letter task was conducted at the conclusion of the study. Four multigroup structural equation models were employed, examining the direct pathways from graphonomic measures (i.e., pressure, speed, pauses, and road length) on text generation (i.e., length, fluency, planning, revision, and organization). The models demonstrated a good fit to the data. The findings from the four models, analyzed within the three cohorts, indicated that the significant effect of transcription (i.e., handwriting) on text production was primarily observed in Cohort 1 (early grades), while no significant effects were found in Cohort 2 (intermediate grades). This suggests that the importance of handwriting in text production in a transparent orthography may be more pronounced during the initial stages of writing development when students are acquiring foundational writing skills.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.903
Pages: 103-121
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169
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445
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Increasing the number of entrepreneurs is not just a school task, it requires joint work between educational institutions and the community. Using structural equation modeling, this research aims to investigate the role of community in promoting entrepreneurial careers for students, by adding achievement motivation, entrepreneurial attitudes, and entrepreneurial intentions as predictor variables. The population of this research was high school students in urban areas, and the sample was taken based on convenience sampling, with a total of 300 students participating. Data were analyzed using EFA, CFA, and structural model evaluation using SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 24.0. The research results show that all hypotheses are accepted, meaning that community support influences students' entrepreneurial career choices, as do other predictor variables. This study can provide guidance for developing educational strategies and policies that support the development of young entrepreneurs in the future, through predictor variables.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.951
Pages: 151-163
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301
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Validity and Reliability of Child-Friendly School Policy Evaluation Instruments in Primary Schools: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

child-friendly school confirmatory factor analysis primary school

Riana Nurhayati , Suranto Aw , Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum , Mami Hajaroh , Herwin Herwin


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Evaluation of child-friendly school (CFS) policies is essential to determine the achievements of school efforts in reducing violence cases. This research aims to proving the reliability and validity of CFS policy evaluation instruments in elementary schools with different locations. This investigation uses the Context Input Process Product (CIPP) evaluation model to confirm the factor structure or dimensions of several observed variables (items) to evaluate the reliability and validity of the CFS policy evaluation tool in elementary schools. The validity and reliability of previously created instruments are evaluated quantitatively, but this study utilises different subjects and study sites. There were 320 respondents, with 145 school principals and 175 teachers taken randomly. Confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) results show goodness of fit (GOF), and the model is acceptable. The CFS evaluation instrument can be accepted after eliminating several question items and modifying them. All items of the teal instrument meet the goodness of fit criteria in terms of chi-square and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). The instrument for evaluating CFS policies in primary schools using the CIPP model has met a valid and reliable psychometric property test so that it can be applied.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.965
Pages: 165-177
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348
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The role of artificial intelligence (AI) in education remains incompletely understood, demanding further evaluation and the creation of robust assessment tools. Despite previous attempts to measure AI's impact in education, existing studies have limitations. This research aimed to develop and validate an assessment instrument for gauging AI effects in higher education. Employing various analytical methods, including Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Rasch Analysis, the initial 70-item instrument covered seven constructs. Administered to 635 students at Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology – Gabaldon campus, content validity was assessed using the Lawshe method. After eliminating 19 items through EFA and CFA, Rasch analysis confirmed the construct validity and led to the removal of three more items. The final 48-item instrument, categorized into learning experiences, academic performance, career guidance, motivation, self-reliance, social interactions, and AI dependency, emerged as a valid and reliable tool for assessing AI's impact on higher education, especially among college students.

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10.12973/ijem.10.2.997
Pages: 197-211
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Cognitive Technology to Evaluate the Academic Learning of Computational Cognition in Psychology Students

academic learning cognitive assessment natural semantic networks psychology students semantic priming

Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales-Martinez , Angel Garcia-Collantes , Rafael Manuel Lopez-Perez


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This study illustrated an alternative way to evaluate students’ academic learning. It involved the joint and intertwined application of the natural semantic network technique, computer simulations, and semantic priming experiments to assess the cognitive changes in knowledge structures due to academic learning in two groups of psychology students. The experimental group was enrolled in a course on computational cognition, while the control group was oblivious to this course. The results indicated that the cognitive assessment tools discriminate the cognitive changes produced as a result of general training undertaken in a psychology degree versus the influence of a specific course. After the course, the experimental group increased their technical vocabulary, changed their conceptual valuation of definers related to computational theories of mind, and reorganized the relations among definers according to the computational cognition approach. Also, this group presented a higher connectivity index between the concepts of the semantic network, their conceptual activation level and conceptual co-activation pattern changed, and their access level to the evaluated schema’s concepts improved. In contrast, the control group did not show significant changes in their cognitive patterns after the course. These findings suggest that cognitive tools may be helpful in the diagnosis of academic learning.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1013
Pages: 213-225
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This research concentrated on observing academic student teachers’ teamwork, especially its effectiveness and their attitudes to collaboration and transformation, as well as their reflective, written self-assessments in relation to teamwork. Teams have been studied widely, but these kinds of special contexts are rare. The target group was higher education teachers, the context was an introduction of a new pedagogical program, and the teams acted under the guidance of mentors and occasional lecturers. Besides the content analysis, the study method was a deep analysis of the essays. The most effective positive influencers proved to be social exchanges, including mentoring, peer support, input for learning and the experiences of wellbeing. Individual distrust of working methods in teams, and emotional suspicions of their self-efficacy in transformational settings emerged as latent factors, revealing mainly the difficulty of changing traditional mindsets. The analyses offered individual and community-wide opportunities to steer education in the future.

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10.12973/ijem.10.2.307
Pages: 307-323
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