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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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'reading comprehension' Search Results



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The fact that the prospective Turkish teachers’ having a command of different methods and techniques as being Turkish teachers of the future is important in terms of its positive effects on the comprehension and expression skills of the middle school students. This study used the case study design and the qualitative approach. The aim of the research was to test the effectiveness of literature circle method and contribute to the field in theoretical and practical context. Fourty-six prospective Turkish teachers were conveniently sampled from the state university in Istanbul, to participate in the study. During six weeks, the opinions of prospective Turkish teachers who applied literature circle method were collected through unstructured interview forms. The data collected were subjected to a content analysis. It was concluded that prospective Turkish teachers found the method of literature circle favorible, in terms of cooperation, solidarity, gaining different perspectives, revealing hidden talents, developing self-confidence, aesthetic pleasure, enriching vocabulary and catching the details.

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10.12973/ijem.4.2.53
Pages: 53-60
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Picture in Children's Story Books: Children's Perspective

interpreting visual reading picture story books

M. Sencer Bulut-Ozsezer , H. Beyza Canbazoglu


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The aim of this study is to collect and analyze children's comments on the pictures in children's story books. Four students studied in the first grade of a public primary school in Adana participated in the study. The research model is an example of phenomenology among qualitative research patterns. Focus group method was used as the data collection tool and observation method was used in a second exercise to support the first method. In focus group discussion "The City on the Wind" by Behic Ak, selected as the Book 1, was reviewed along with 4 participating students. In the second exercise, the book named "The Little Match Girl" selected as Book 2 was reviewed. Descriptive analysis and document analysis methods were used in the analysis of the research data. Students' comments on the pictures were collected under four different themes. "Description" among these themes was the most common in student expressions. The sentences for the themes of superficial interpretation, imaginative interpretation and critical understanding were less frequently used by students. Another finding of the study is the number of words students used to describe the picture. Students built short sentences not exceeding 2-3 words.  

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.4.4.205
Pages: 205-217
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The aim of this research is to investigate ability of sixth grade students’ comprehension the listened story text. The research is the survey type of quantitative research methods. The population of the study consisted of the sixth grade students of the middle schools in the city center of Yozgat, Turkey in the 2018-2019 academic years. A simple random cluster sampling method was used in the selection of the sample. A total of 369 sixth grade students are sample. As a data collection, a story text entitled “Hero of the Town” was used. Data were collected in October 2018. SPSS 21 program was used to analyze the data. The level of listening comprehension the sixth grade students to the story text is 77.46%. It is seen that the sixth grade girl students’ listening comprehension are better than boy students. The girls’ listening comprehension is higher than boys’ %8. 

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.1.35
Pages: 35-42
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It has been well documented that oral language skills are precursors of the development of written abilities, meaning that improving oral language skills, e.g. vocabulary, listening comprehension, could have positive effects reading comprehension. The main aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a training program focused on four components of comprehension ability provided in listening or written modality on first-graders’ reading and listening comprehension. The training programs were implemented by school teachers as part of the class’s normal school activities, under the supervision of experts. Their efficacy was compared with the results obtained in a passive control group. Our results showed that both the training programs produced positive effects on listening and reading comprehension (by comparison with a passive control group), and that the gains in reading comprehension were maintained at a five-month follow-up. Findings demonstrated specific improvements in listening comprehension with the listening modality program, as well as an improvement in the modality not directly trained. A similar cross-modality effect was found from the written modality training group, therefore confirming the strict relation between oral and written abilities. Reading comprehension performance of first graders can be improved with activities provided in listening and written modality. Hence, it is possible to enhance reading comprehension even before decoding and fluency in reading are acquired.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.187
Pages: 187-200
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1007
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1149
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This research aims to explore the effectiveness of interdisciplinary education program based on multicultural education on the tolerance value, attitude and critical thinking skills of the fourth grade primary school students. Single group pre-posttest design has been used in the study. The research has been carried out with 30 fourth-grade students, at a primary school located within the district of Karakocan in Elazig during the 2015-2016 academic year. Among the participants, 15 are females and 15 are males. The research has employed Tolerance Attitude Scale developed by Kaptan-Yarar, tolerance value and critical thinking story tests and scoring rubrics. Descriptive statistics and dependent samples t-test have been used during data analysis. Research results have revealed a statistically significant difference between critical thinking scoring rubric, tolerance value scoring rubric and tolerance attitude scale pretest-posttest scores in favor of posttest. Based on these results, it can be said that the interdisciplinary curriculum developed based on multicultural education improves students' critical thinking skills, tolerance value and attitudes.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.43
Pages: 43-55
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This study aims to identify the effect of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies on self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of secondary school students and whether self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of secondary school students differs according to the variables such as their gender and reading habits. In this correlational survey model study, data were collected from the sample of 380 students of 8th grade by using ‘Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory’ developed by Mokhtari and Reichard and translated into Turkish by Ozturk; and ‘Self-Efficacy Scale in Reading Comprehension’ developed by Epcacan and Demirel were used. The data gathered were evaluated statistically by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with the help of the SPSS program. As the results of the study, Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be statistically and significantly larger in the groups that have a tendency to finish books that they start. Moreover, Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be statistically and significantly larger in the groups that have advanced level of reading habits. Additionally, RSC, SRR and RVC subscale scores of self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension, were found to be significantly different in favor of female participants. General Reading Strategies, Problem Solving Strategies and Supporting Reading Strategies subscales of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies have a positive effect on Reading Visual Comprehension, Self-regulation in Reading and Reading Self-confidence scores of the participants. In other words, metacognitive awareness of reading strategies contributes to self-efficacy perception in reading comprehension of eighth-grade students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.83
Pages: 83-98
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1384
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This survey study provides a holistic picture of English teachers’ qualification and the status quo of English instruction in secondary school classrooms in four lowest-achieving rural disctricts in Beijing, China. It covers a wide variety of aspects related to language instruction, including teachers’ professional background and credentials, lesson preparation and instructional materials, teachers’ instructional languages, factors that limit English instruction, roles teachers play in classrooms, and classroom instruction on pronunciation and fluency, vocabulary, grammar, and comprehension. Results shows how inequality in resources and the lack of teaching standards and qualifications can negatively impact students, further hindering their academic and professional opportunities. The findings provide valuable information to the teacher preparation and professional development in these districts and hopefully bring attention to the Department of Education in China about the educational needs of the low achieving rural districts in Beijing.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.99
Pages: 99-112
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550
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976
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The article provides an analysis of the literature on interactive cognitive strategies. The aim of the study is to examine the pedagogical potential of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher. The research used theoretical and empirical methods: analysis of theoretical sources, analysis and generalization of the experience of scientific and methodological developments, training of students of a pedagogical institution. The problem of developing scientific and methodological support for the use of interactive cognitive strategies for the effective formation of a multilingual personality of a future teacher is being updated. A generalization of the obtained results indicates that the use of interactive cognitive strategies positively affects the formation of the multilingual personality of the future teacher. The research was supported by within the framework of the project on research on priority directions of scientific activity of the universities-partners in networking (South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute) on the topic of “Linguodidactic foundations of the intercultural communicative competence formation of a future teacher”.

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10.12973/ijem.6.1.147
Pages: 147-152
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781
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An Effective Method in Improving Social Skills: Literature Circles

literature circles social skills elementary school

Birsen Dogan , Dudu Kaya-Tosun


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This study was carried out to determine the effect of literature circles on the social skills of fourth-grade elementary school students. To this end, the study was designed as a quasi-experimental study and carried out on 74 students in a public elementary school in the Pamukkale district of Denizli, Turkey. The literature circles method was administered to an experimental group for 18 weeks. In the control group, activities continued in line with the current Turkish Course Curriculum. “School Social Behavior Scales” were used as a data collection instrument. A comparison of the scores on the scales revealed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group. The results imply that the literature circles method had a positive influence on the development of the students’ social skills.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.199
Pages: 199-206
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Within the scope of the research, which aims to determine the leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels of the university students who volunteer in sports organizations, it is aimed to analyze the relationship and the differences of certain variables with measurement tools, as well as to examine the relationship and impact between leisure literacy and leisure exercise. In this context, 207 sports organization volunteers who participated in the study participated in the data collection, as well as a demographic information form, as well as the “Leisure Literacy Scale” and “Leisure-Time Exercise Scale" was used. In this study, the internal reliability coefficient for the Leisure literacy scale was .94 and .70 for the leisure exersice questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey (HSD-LSD) test and Pearson Correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings reveal that participants have high leisure literacy (81.25 ± 14.04) and men exhibit more active leisure exercise levels, certain variables change leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels. On the other hand, positive strong relationships between leisure literacy and leisure exercise were determined, and leisure literacy was found to have a positive effect on leisure exercise level. As a result of the research, it can be stated that the volunteer participants who take part in sports organizations and evaluate their leisure time actively, the literacy knowledge, background and action level for their leisure time is an important factor that makes individuals spend their leisure by exercising.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.381
Pages: 381-392
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1036
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995
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9

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5

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This study aimed to investigate whether Thai high school students’ perceived teacher support could enhance their reading ability through self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. The theoretical foundation of this study included the theory of social-motivational processes and social cognitive theory. Structural equation modeling was used for analysis and validation. The student questionnaire from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 survey questions regarding teacher support, sense of school belonging, self-efficacy, and reading ability. The sample consisted of the data collected from the Thai students in the PISA2018 survey, with an effective sample size totaling 7968. The research results of the overall model showed that the perceived teacher support of Thai high school students’ had no direct effect on their reading ability, but their perceived teacher support had an indirect effect on reading ability through their self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. From the results can be seen that high school teachers in Thailand, in supporting and encouraging their students in learning, must simultaneously develop their perceived self-efficacy and sense of school belonging. Only thus can there be obvious help to their students’ reading ability.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.435
Pages: 435-446
cloud_download 699
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699
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1089
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10

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Personalized Book Advice Smart Application on secondary school students’ motivation as well as determining the views of students, teachers, and parents regarding the application. In the research, a mixed method approach, in which quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis methods are used together, was adopted. In the quantitative part, 585 secondary school students, 300 of whom are in the experimental group and 285 in the control group; In the qualitative part, 105 students, 6 teachers and 247 families were included in the research. Similarly, the qualitative of the study involved 105 students, 6 teachers, and 247 parents. In the quantitative part of the research, data collected with the Reading Motivation Scale developed by Durmus. In the qualitative part, the data were collected through a questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed using parametric descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique. According to the findings obtained from the research, there is a significant difference in reading motivation of secondary school students in terms of post-test scores. It is seen that the students like to read adventure books and think that the books proposed by the application are suitable for their interests. Teachers state that they find the application successful, and they like that the application forms reading habits, and recommends books according to their interests, moreover, the recommended books are suitable for the students’ levels. On the other hand, the teachers think that teacher control is necessary. Additionally, parents state that they like the application because it recommends books according to the children’s interests and those recommended books were suitable for their levels, however, they added that the number of the books needs to be increased.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.3.587
Pages: 587-602
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573
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993
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2

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This study explores the impact extended participation in literature circles had on the reading attitudes of university-age pre-service teachers following their involvement in literature circles for one academic year, as part of their training. The participants of the study consisted of 21 pre-service teachers with a low or moderate level of reading habits and reading attitudes. The research was conducted through a mixed methods approach. Although both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in the study, particular emphasis was given to the data collected from the qualitative part (quan+QUAL). In line with the quantitative data, it was concluded in the study that extended involvement in the literature circles had a positive effect on the reading attitudes of the pre-service teachers. The qualitative data, which was obtained through interviews, revealed four themes. The themes emerged as love and desire for reading, benefits of reading, importance of reading and reading habits as a result of the analysis. The results obtained from the research are important in terms of contributing to the improvement of pre-service teachers who will play important roles in Turkey’s becoming a literate society.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.653
Pages: 653-667
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878
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1137
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5

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5

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Progress monitoring of academic achievement is an essential element to prevent learning disorders. A prominent approach is curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Various studies have documented positive effects of CBM on students’ achievement. Nevertheless, the use of CBM is associated with additional work for teachers. The use of tablets may be of help here. Yet, although many advantages of computer- or tablet-based assessments are being discussed in the literature (e. g. innovative item formats, adaptive testing, automated scoring and feedback), there are still concerns regarding the comparability of different assessment modes (paper-pencil vs. tablet). In the study presented, we analyze the CBM data of 98 fourth graders. They processed the exact same computation items once with paper and pen and once in a tablet application. The analyses point to comparable results in the test modes, although some significant deviations can be found at item level. In addition, the children report perceived benefits when working with the tablet.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.4.669
Pages: 669-680
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1134
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1482
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13

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0

Presenting the Meta-Performance Test, a Metacognitive Battery based on Performance

metacognition assessment content validity performance tests

Marcio Alexander Castillo-Diaz , Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes


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The self-report and think-aloud approaches are the two dominant methodologies to measure metacognition. This is problematic, since they generate respondent and confirmation biases, respectively. The Meta-Performance Test is an innovative battery, which evaluates metacognition based on the respondent's performance, mitigating the aforementioned biases. The Meta-Performance Test consists of two tests, the Meta-text, which evaluates metacognition in the domain of reading comprehension, and Meta-number, in the domain of arithmetic expressions solving. The main focus of this article is to present the development of the battery, in terms of its conceptual basis, development strategies and structure. Evidence of its content validity is also presented, through the evaluation of three experts in metacognition, two experts in Spanish language, two experts in mathematics and five students who represent the target population. The results of the judges' evaluations attested to the Meta-Performance Test content validity, and the target population declared that both the battery understanding and taking are adequate. Contributions and future research perspectives of the Meta-Performance Test in the field of metacognition are discussed.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.2.289
Pages: 289-303
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1386
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2210
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2

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2

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The aim of this study is to obtain classroom teachers' views on the problems experienced in the literacy process by foreign students in the first grade of primary school, which constitutes an important part of language acquisition. A qualitative research approach has been adopted in the research. The data were obtained using a semi-structured interview form. With the semi-structured interview form created by the researchers, the opinions of the teachers working in the city center of Malatya in Turkey in the 2017-2018 academic year and having foreign students in their class were received. The data collected in line with the opinions of the teachers were analyzed with content analysis. As a result of the data analyzed, the opinions of the teachers were collected under 5 titles; "The problems experienced by foreign students in the process of adaptation to the school", "The problems experienced by foreign students in the stages of the literacy process", "Teacher’s problems in the education of foreign students", "Teacher’s solutions regarding the problems experienced by foreign students in education", and "System suggestions of teachers for the education of foreign students". Teachers mostly experienced problems in writing during the preparation stage, language-related problems in the perception of the sound, pronunciation problems in reading letters, and comprehension problems in syllable-word-sentence-text creation when starting independent literacy.

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10.12973/ijem.7.2.319
Pages: 319-334
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370
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671
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Individuals’ engagement with reading and maintaining it depends on personal motivations. Having a multidimensional structure, reading motivation is affected by intrinsic factors. Studies on reading motivation can make a significant contribution to identifying students’ intrinsic motivation profiles closely, encouraging them to read, and increasing their reading engagement. The present study aimed to determine the individual and socioeconomic variables predicting middle school students’ intrinsic reading motivations. Employing the predictive correlational design, the study was carried out with 459 students attending six different public schools in the city of Sanliurfa. The participants were determined by stratified purposeful sampling method. The study data were collected by the Intrinsic Reading Motivation Scale and the Personal Information Form. According to the hierarchical regression analysis results, all the models constructed in the study were significant. All of the variables explained the intrinsic reading motivation with a 22% variance explanation percentage. As a result, it can be said that the change observed in intrinsic reading motivation variance mostly stemmed from reading engagement (ΔR2=.12), family (ΔR2=.07), demographic characteristics (ΔR2=.03), and school (ΔR2=.01), respectively. It can be stated that the predictors of the intrinsic reading motivation determined in this study should be taken into consideration by educators.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.3.401
Pages: 401-410
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415
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971
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Fictional characters give literary works a sense of reality. The actions of fictional characters play a crucial role in children's personality development. Young readers who lack critical reading skills are more likely to incorporate fictional characters into their lives because they have a hard time telling reality from fiction. Therefore, we should determine how children perceive fictional characters and teach them that they are imaginary figures. In this way, we can help them approach those characters' actions from an external and critical perspective. This study adopted a qualitative research design (case study) to investigate secondary school students' perceptions of fictional characters. The sample consisted of 45 secondary school students (28 female and 17 male). Data were collected through interviews and document review techniques. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Results showed that participants were more likely to be interested in and identify with characters with appealing personality traits. They had four types of approaches to fictional characters: (1) Wanting to change the storyline depending on what the fictional character goes through, (2) being influenced by them, (3) seeing them as role models, or (4) ignoring them. They wanted to change the storyline, especially when the villain got what he wanted or when the hero or the victim was unhappy, suggesting that they mostly took the protagonist's side (the good guy). While most participants attributed an ontological meaning to anthropomorphic characters, the symbolic meaning became of secondary importance. They were more interested in and identified more with characters with good living conditions and no death experiences.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.433
Pages: 433-446
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496
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1027
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Response times are one of the important sources that provide information about the performance of individuals during a test process. The main purpose of this study is to show that survival models can be used in educational data. Accordingly, data sets of items measuring literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills of the countries participating in Round 3 of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies were used. Accelerated failure time models have been analyzed for each country and domain.  As a result of the analysis of the models in which various covariates are included as independent variables, and response time for giving correct answers is included as a dependent variable, it was found the associations between the covariates and response time for giving correct answers were concluded to vary from one domain to another or from one country to another. The results obtained from the present study have provided the educational stakeholders and practitioners with valuable information.

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10.12973/ijem.7.4.571
Pages: 571-586
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264
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715
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Sometimes Finding Nothing is Something: Shrinking the Gap between Emerging Bilingual Learners and English Fluent Students (Case in Point)

emerging bilingual instruction science steam stem

Michael W. Corrigan , Douglas Grove , Sage Andersen , Joseph T. Wong , Bradley S. Hughes


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For United States of America (USA) and other developed countries, science achievement gaps begin to emerge in elementary and primary school. Such gaps between USA student groups typically are connected to socio-economic status (SES) and issues such as students still learning the English language. Through an experimental design, this National Science Foundation funded study explores how integrating the arts into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and leading with a more STEAM-first approach (e.g., curriculum which integrates science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) might provide more equitable science learning opportunities for elementary or primary grade level students. More specifically, the project’s research efforts seek to also examine how integrating the arts into science instruction might help emerging bilingual (EB) students who are simultaneously learning the English language and science. Although results provide somewhat conflicting findings of statistical significance with small to moderate effect sizes, outcomes provide initial evidence that leading with STEAM science instruction before STEM efforts can be beneficial to early readers, and for EB students this benefit is magnified. As the title of this study suggest, sometimes finding nothing is something.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.1.11
Pages: 11-27
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303
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776
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