logo logo International Journal of Educational Methodology

IJEM is a leading, peer-reviewed, open access, research journal that provides an online forum for studies in education, by and for scholars and practitioners, worldwide.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.

Subscribe

Publisher (HQ)

RHAPSODE LTD
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE
RHAPSODE LTD
Headquarters
College House, 2nd Floor 17 King Edwards Road, Ruislip, London, UK. HA4 7AE

'validity test' Search Results



...

Pictologics (PLS) is a language teaching method which relies on imaginative usage of pictures. The current paper reports the effects of applying this method on enhancing critical thinking ability of the Malaysian students. 69 students (32 boys & 37 girls) in two classes in a public primary school in Penang, Malaysia participated in this study. The experiment covered ten 1-hour sessions which were all audio-recorded and video-taped. The main objective was to engage the students in short conversations in English by using new words that they were learning via PLS. The following qualitative instruments were employed in this study: interviews with the teachers, focus group interviews with the students, a group interview with students’ parents, class check-list of the students’ behavior during the sessions, photos, and video footages. The findings reveal significant patterns of critical thinking among the students such as recognizing and criticizing assumptions, giving reasons to support a conclusion, incorporating isolated data into a wider framework, and using analogies to solve problems. The author strongly recommends application of adopted PLS techniques to be used either alone, or combined with the other conventional language teaching methods.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.4.4.243
Pages: 243-257
cloud_download 1045
visibility 1203
2
Article Metrics
Views
1045
Download
1203
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

This study aims to conduct Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence. This study also aims to examine and improve early academic competence thoroughly on the basis of teachers’ ratings in Turkey, and lastly to contribute an assessment and measurement instrument to the literature which will enable to conduct further research in the field. This study was designed in a general survey model. The study included normally developing 619 36-72 month-old preschoolers attending to nursery classes and kindergartens affiliated to Afyonkarahisar Ministry of National Education in 2015-2016 academic year. The validity and reliability studies of the data obtained following the implementation of TRS-EAC, was completed. The Cronbach Alpha, split half test, test-retest reliability of the scale and its subscales were measured. TRS-EAC was found to be valid and reliable for 36-72 month-old children. It can be considered that the various studies that can be used TRS-EAC in Turkey will provide important contributions to the measurement power of this test.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.1.43
Pages: 43-57
cloud_download 567
visibility 820
2
Article Metrics
Views
567
Download
820
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

The current study investigated the opinions of secondary school students taking the science course from different science teachers about the science course and science teachers. The current study was conducted with the participation of 32 students instructed by different science teachers and attending different secondary schools in the fall term of 2018-2019 academic year. The data of the current study were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis of the data, the descriptive analysis technique was used. The findings of the current study have revealed that high majority of the students love their science classes and science teachers, that in science classes, lecturing, question-answer and note-taking are methods widely employed, that if there is a smart board in the class, then Okulistik or EBA computer program is on, that the assignments given are from the textbook, that the most frequently adopted behavior by the teachers in the face of any discipline problem is warning and that informal learning environments are not used much. Moreover, it was found that projects are rarely assigned to students and the projects assigned are given as homework. A great majority of the students expect their teachers to be entertaining, they want their lessons to be instructed through games and experiments, and they do not want to write a lot in their classes.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.2.221
Pages: 221-233
cloud_download 741
visibility 949
3
Article Metrics
Views
741
Download
949
Citations
Crossref
3

Scopus

...

The aim of this study is to compare 2018 Science Course Curriculum (SCC), 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and 2018 High School Entrance Examination (HSE) in terms of content domains, cognitive domains and learning objectives. Qualitative research method, was used in this study. Data were analyzed using document review matrices to determine the similarities and differences between the objectives of SCC, TIMSS and HSE. SCC outcomes and HSE science questions were also classified according to TIMSS cognitive domains. Results show that the learning objectives of the fields of Physics, Biology and Earth Sciences of TIMSS are compatible with those of all grade levels of SCC and that the objectives of Chemistry are compatible with those of the seventh and eighth grades. Most of HSE questions are compatible with the objectives of SCC, however, the latest revision in the curriculum has introduced some eighth grade objectives to other grade levels. HSE science questions measure higher-level skills than TIMSS science questions. The subject domain of the “Organisms and Life” of SCC has the most learning objectives in the levels of “knowing” and “reasoning” while the subject domain of the “Physical Events” has the most learning objectives in the levels of “applying.” Besides, the seventh-, fifth- and eighth-graders have the most objectives in the levels of “knowing,” “applying,” and “reasoning,” respectively. It is hoped that the results will contribute the literature in improvement of science curricula and interpretation of national and international exams.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.3.433
Pages: 433-449
cloud_download 849
visibility 1117
2
Article Metrics
Views
849
Download
1117
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

Teacher-made tests (TMT) are the most used instruments for assessment and evaluation. This study investigates the cognitive requirements, test construction errors, and item types of TMTs. Content analysis technique is used in order to analyze and classify TMT items based on TIMSS-2019 assessment framework and based on criteria that is constructed to determine test construction errors. The data is consisted of 548 items in 30 exam papers of 18 mathematics teachers from 13 distinct schools. The distribution of TIMSS-2019 cognitive demands of all TMTs indicates that there is a strong emphasis on knowing or applying cognitive domains, with a total percentage of 93. Since 83% of all questions are of multiple choice and 17% are constructed-response type, teachers mostly prefer multiple choice item type. Findings also reveal that except face validity, there are errors concerning test constructions. Consequently, it is suggested that teachers should give more care on preparing items of higher cognitive levels, on tests of mixed type items, and on tests that involve lesser construction errors for more reliable tests. Finally, it is also suggested that measurement and evaluation specialists should be employed in each school or in each local Ministry of National Education Authority at least, in order to support teachers, but if this is not possible in a close time, there must be in-service training programs on measurement and evaluation for teachers to participate in.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.3.479
Pages: 479-488
cloud_download 349
visibility 755
3
Article Metrics
Views
349
Download
755
Citations
Crossref
3

Scopus

...

This study describes the development and validation of a psychometrically-sound instrument, the Active Learning Strategies Inventory (ALSI), designed to measure learners’ perceptions of their active learning strategies within an active learning context. Active learning encompasses a broad range of pedagogical practices and instructional methods that connect with an individual learner's active learning strategies. In order to fulfill the study's goals, a conceptual framework on learners’ active learning strategies was developed and proposed, drawing upon the research literature on active learning. The development and construct validation of the Active Learning Strategies Inventory (ALSI), based on the conceptual and methodological underpinnings, involved identifying five scales of learners’ active learning strategies: engagement, cognitive processing, orientation to learning, readiness to learn and motivational orientation. An item pool of 20 items was generated following an extensive review of the literature, standardized card sorting procedures including confirmatory factor analysis and scale validation of a pilot (n = 407) survey. The ALSI scale demonstrated strong internal consistency and reliability with a Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.81 to 0.87. High item loading scores from the factor analysis provided initial support for the instrument's construct validity of the five-factor model. The ALSI scale provides a reliable and valid method for researchers and academicians who wish to measure learners' perceptions of their active learning strategies within an active learning context. Finally, we discuss the implications and address the limitations and directions for future research.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.1.201
Pages: 201-223
cloud_download 1011
visibility 1209
5
Article Metrics
Views
1011
Download
1209
Citations
Crossref
5

Scopus
4

...

“Mathematical knowledge for teaching” is a concept indicating the requirement for a specific kind of knowledge required to teach mathematics. Mathematical knowledge for teaching necessitates a more complex structure than what is required to carry out mathematical tasks and the knowledge to do that. The purpose of this study is to realize the adaptation of “Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching -Geometry (MKT-G)” Test that was initially conceived in English to Turkish (or to Turkish culture). During the adaptation process; after the translations of the items, focus group interviews were held with a group consisting of mathematics teacher educators and experienced mathematics teachers, and then the data from 243 elementary mathematics teachers was analyzed via  Item Response Theory (IRT). As a result of the analysis of the test items, psychometric values of the test items indicated that the items in the test performed well in Turkey. Besides, validity and reliability arguments were also tested. As a result, the Turkish version of the MKT-G test is highly reliable and valid to measure the teachers’ knowledge of teaching geometry.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.4.547
Pages: 547-565
cloud_download 508
visibility 856
4
Article Metrics
Views
508
Download
856
Citations
Crossref
4

Scopus
3

...

The surge of learners being immersed in computer game contexts for learning has instigated dialogue about the contextually appropriate collection of reliable and valid data to inform education-based decisions. The purpose of this article is to develop educational practitioners’ understanding of preliminary research work, and to inform educational researchers about design and reporting of preliminary research work, in the context of reported preliminary studies on Digital Game-Based Learning Interventions (DGBLIs). First a checklist of processes for the reporting of preliminary studies is provided. Second, a summary is offered of the characteristics of each type of preliminary study including the description, objectives, and methodology. Third, an example from peer-reviewed literature is identified of each type of preliminary study relevant to DGBLIs and conducted within the past five years. Evident from the examples selected, educational researchers and practitioners are best advised to recognize the characteristics of preliminary studies — pilot work, feasibility study, pilot study, pilot trial, and field test — to better inform DGBLIs before embarking on a full-scale study, and to meet the need of educational practitioners for concrete evidence about DGBLIs.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.5.4.623
Pages: 623-635
cloud_download 792
visibility 1071
9
Article Metrics
Views
792
Download
1071
Citations
Crossref
9

Scopus
9

...

Kelley’s Discrimination Index (DI) is a simple and robust, classical non-parametric short-cut to estimate the item discrimination power (IDP) in the practical educational settings. Unlike item–total correlation, DI can reach the ultimate values of +1 and ‒1, and it is stable against the outliers. Because of the computational easiness, DI is specifically suitable for the rough estimation where the sophisticated tools for item analysis such as IRT modelling are not available as is usual, for example, in the classroom testing. Unlike most of the other traditional indices for IDP, DI uses only the extreme cases of the ordered dataset in the estimation. One deficiency of DI is that it suits only for dichotomous datasets. This article generalizes DI to allow polytomous dataset and flexible cut-offs for selecting the extreme cases. A new algorithm based on the concept of the characteristic vector of the item is introduced to compute the generalized DI (GDI). A new visual method for item analysis, the cut-off curve, is introduced based on the procedure called exhaustive splitting.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.6.2.237
Pages: 237 - 258
cloud_download 836
visibility 1029
6
Article Metrics
Views
836
Download
1029
Citations
Crossref
6

Scopus

...

The study's goal was to examine the correlation between the computer programming self-efficacy and computational thinking skills of gifted and talented students. The capacity of the computer programming self-efficacy of gifted and talented students to predict their computational thinking skills were also examined. The relational screening model has been implemented in the research. The participants of the study were composed of 106 secondary school gifted and talented students studying the Individual Ability Recognition Program (IAR) at the Science and Art Center in the city center. Typical case sampling was applied for the student identification of the participants, 46 are female and 60 are male. Gifted and talented students' computational thinking skills were assessed using the "Computational Thinking Skills Scale” and the computer programming self-efficacy was measured by using the "Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale". Data were analysed by Pearson correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis in statistical software SPSS 22. Research results found that there was a positive and high correlation between the computer programming self-efficacy and computational thinking skills. The gifted and talented students' computer programming self-efficacy demonstrated 31.5% of the total variance in computational thinking skills. This finding supports the claim which is present in the literature that self-efficacy in computer programming is the affective aspect of computational thinking skills. To predict computational thinking skills, it may be recommended to build multiple models for cognitive and affective skills of gifted and talented students.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.6.2.259
Pages: 259-270
cloud_download 897
visibility 2110
7
Article Metrics
Views
897
Download
2110
Citations
Crossref
7

Scopus

...

Within the scope of the research, which aims to determine the leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels of the university students who volunteer in sports organizations, it is aimed to analyze the relationship and the differences of certain variables with measurement tools, as well as to examine the relationship and impact between leisure literacy and leisure exercise. In this context, 207 sports organization volunteers who participated in the study participated in the data collection, as well as a demographic information form, as well as the “Leisure Literacy Scale” and “Leisure-Time Exercise Scale" was used. In this study, the internal reliability coefficient for the Leisure literacy scale was .94 and .70 for the leisure exersice questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey (HSD-LSD) test and Pearson Correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings reveal that participants have high leisure literacy (81.25 ± 14.04) and men exhibit more active leisure exercise levels, certain variables change leisure literacy and leisure exercise levels. On the other hand, positive strong relationships between leisure literacy and leisure exercise were determined, and leisure literacy was found to have a positive effect on leisure exercise level. As a result of the research, it can be stated that the volunteer participants who take part in sports organizations and evaluate their leisure time actively, the literacy knowledge, background and action level for their leisure time is an important factor that makes individuals spend their leisure by exercising.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.6.2.381
Pages: 381-392
cloud_download 967
visibility 860
9
Article Metrics
Views
967
Download
860
Citations
Crossref
9

Scopus
5

...

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Personalized Book Advice Smart Application on secondary school students’ motivation as well as determining the views of students, teachers, and parents regarding the application. In the research, a mixed method approach, in which quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis methods are used together, was adopted. In the quantitative part, 585 secondary school students, 300 of whom are in the experimental group and 285 in the control group; In the qualitative part, 105 students, 6 teachers and 247 families were included in the research. Similarly, the qualitative of the study involved 105 students, 6 teachers, and 247 parents. In the quantitative part of the research, data collected with the Reading Motivation Scale developed by Durmus. In the qualitative part, the data were collected through a questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed using parametric descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique. According to the findings obtained from the research, there is a significant difference in reading motivation of secondary school students in terms of post-test scores. It is seen that the students like to read adventure books and think that the books proposed by the application are suitable for their interests. Teachers state that they find the application successful, and they like that the application forms reading habits, and recommends books according to their interests, moreover, the recommended books are suitable for the students’ levels. On the other hand, the teachers think that teacher control is necessary. Additionally, parents state that they like the application because it recommends books according to the children’s interests and those recommended books were suitable for their levels, however, they added that the number of the books needs to be increased.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.6.3.587
Pages: 587-602
cloud_download 504
visibility 877
2
Article Metrics
Views
504
Download
877
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

Today’s individuals are expected to have skills in many areas as a natural consequence of the advances that have been taking place in society and technology. Particularly in developed countries, these skills are also called 21st century skills. Critical, creative and reflective thinking, problem solving and keeping up with the digital age (digital literacy) are some of these skills. Universities play a significant role in raising qualified individuals in our country. Updating the training programs, keeping up with the era and having a say in the digital world makes it a necessity for people who give education in these areas to be competent. From this point of view, this study aimed to explore the digital literacy levels of Turkish academics working in faculties of education and the perceptions of students towards technology integration competence of the academics. In this study, quantitative cross-sectional design was preferred. While selecting the participants, purposeful sampling method was used, and two different participant groups (academics and prospective teachers) were included in the process. Two scales with validity and reliability in the literature were used as data collection tools in the research. In the data collection process, firstly, a survey was administered to academics working in faculties of education, and then another one was conducted with prospective teachers. The results obtained were subjected to quantitative data analysis via SPSS 24 and AMOS 24 software, and descriptive and inferential statistics were generated. The results revealed that the variables of department, age and grade level created a significant difference in the digitalization of academics, whereas the gender variable significantly contributed only to the perceptions of prospective teachers.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.1.15
Pages: 15-31
cloud_download 1494
visibility 1344
7
Article Metrics
Views
1494
Download
1344
Citations
Crossref
7

Scopus

...

Although Goodman–Kruskal gamma (G) is used relatively rarely it has promising potential as a coefficient of association in educational settings.  Characteristics of G are studied in three sub-studies related to educational measurement settings. G appears to be unexpectedly appealing as an estimator of association between an item and a score because it strictly indicates the probability to get a correct answer in the test item given the score, and it accurately produces perfect latent association irrespective of distributions, degrees of freedom, number of tied pairs and tied values in the variables, or the difficulty levels in the items. However, it underestimates the association in an obvious manner when the number of categories in the item is more than four. Towards this, a dimension-corrected G (G2) is proposed and its characteristics are studied. Both G and G2 appear to be promising alternatives in measurement modelling settings, G with binary items and G2 with binary, polytomous and mixed datasets.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.1.95
Pages: 95-118
cloud_download 874
visibility 842
9
Article Metrics
Views
874
Download
842
Citations
Crossref
9

Scopus

...

The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency of children with mild intellectual disabled (MID) and to compare their FMS proficiencies in terms of age and gender. This study has three purposes. These are a) Defining the FMS proficiencies of the participants, b) Examining the FMS proficiencies of the participants in terms of gender variable, c) Examining the FMS proficiencies of the participants in terms of the age variable. Participants consisted of 122 MID students aged 7-10 years (M = 8.25, SD = 0.92). FMS proficiency was evaluated with the Gross Motor Development Test-Second Edition (TGMD-2). Independent Samples t test and ANOVA test were used to test the differences between groups. As a result: a) It was observed that the participants could not perform the FMS at the mastery level. Participants failed to demonstrate FMS proficiency appropriate for their age and showed delays in FMS compared to the TGMD-2 normative sample. Most of the participants performed “below average” and “poor” for LOC and OC skills. It was determined that the participants obtained higher scores in LOC subtest compared to OC subtest, b) It was determined that males were more proficiency in FMS and subtests than females, c) No difference was found in FMS proficiency in terms of age. These results show that opportunities need to be increased to develop the FMS proficiency.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.2.225
Pages: 225-233
cloud_download 693
visibility 1038
2
Article Metrics
Views
693
Download
1038
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

The purpose of the study is to examine pre-service teachers' impromptu speaking skills on the basis of the evaluations of the instructor, peers and their own. The study employed a descriptive case study design, one of the qualitative research methods. A total of 23 pre-service math teachers taking the course of Art of Effective Speech in a state university in Turkey in the 2016-2017 academic year participated in the study. The data of the study were collected through the observations of the researcher and pre-service teachers. Descriptive analysis was used in the analysis of the data. As a result of the study, it was found that in most of the observation items, the pre-service teachers found themselves inadequate in terms of impromptu speaking skills while they were found to be adequate by their peers and instructor. In addition, it was revealed that the pre-service teachers found themselves inadequate in some items related to the use of voice while they found themselves adequate in most of the items related to articulation/diction and body language and in all of the items related to communication. However, while the instructor observed that the pre-service teachers were generally competent in all the sub-dimensions, she determined that they needed improvement in the sub-dimensions of eye contact, pausing at the appropriate place and speaking without repeating words.  

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.2.261
Pages: 261-277
cloud_download 573
visibility 655
0
Article Metrics
Views
573
Download
655
Citations
Crossref
0

Scopus
0

Presenting the Meta-Performance Test, a Metacognitive Battery based on Performance

metacognition assessment content validity performance tests

Marcio Alexander Castillo-Diaz , Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes


...

The self-report and think-aloud approaches are the two dominant methodologies to measure metacognition. This is problematic, since they generate respondent and confirmation biases, respectively. The Meta-Performance Test is an innovative battery, which evaluates metacognition based on the respondent's performance, mitigating the aforementioned biases. The Meta-Performance Test consists of two tests, the Meta-text, which evaluates metacognition in the domain of reading comprehension, and Meta-number, in the domain of arithmetic expressions solving. The main focus of this article is to present the development of the battery, in terms of its conceptual basis, development strategies and structure. Evidence of its content validity is also presented, through the evaluation of three experts in metacognition, two experts in Spanish language, two experts in mathematics and five students who represent the target population. The results of the judges' evaluations attested to the Meta-Performance Test content validity, and the target population declared that both the battery understanding and taking are adequate. Contributions and future research perspectives of the Meta-Performance Test in the field of metacognition are discussed.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.2.289
Pages: 289-303
cloud_download 833
visibility 1100
2
Article Metrics
Views
833
Download
1100
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
2

...

This study aims to produce empirical evidence of the validity and reliability of instrument items for the competency framework of agricultural teaching staff in Malaysian agricultural vocational colleges. The validity and reliability of the framework were analyzed using Rasch Model Measurement assisted by Winsteps 3.72 software. This research instrument contained 116 items, which was distributed to 30 instructors at the Teluk Intan Agricultural Vocational College, Malaysia. The selection of respondents was made by strata random where the researcher makes the strata of the population according to the percentage and then selects randomly based on the desired percentage. Validity analysis of the instrument was done through four functional testings. For reliability and separation of respondents, it was found that the individual reliability value was very good and acceptable. The results of the item polarity analysis detected no negative value (-) in the Point Measure Correlation value. Item matching analysis found that 11 items had to be dropped as they failed to meet the required conditions. From the analysis on local dependence that determines dependent items based on the standardized residual correlation value, it was discovered that the correlation value for the items used was detected; 13 items need attention. The results of the data analysis checking the functionality of the items suggested that some items should be dropped. The omission of these items has provided evidence that the instrument of competence of agricultural instructors is crucial to have a high level of validity and reliability for use in actual studies.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.3.411
Pages: 411-420
cloud_download 323
visibility 570
2
Article Metrics
Views
323
Download
570
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus
2

...

This article introduces the concept of the carrying capacity of data (CCD), defined as an integrated, evaluative judgment of the credibility of specific data-based inferences, informed by quantitative and qualitative analyses, leavened by experience. The sequential process of evaluating the CCD is represented schematically by a framework that can guide data analysis and statistical inference, as well as pedagogy. Aspects of each phase are illustrated with examples. A key initial activity in empirical work is data scrutiny, comprising consideration of data provenance and characteristics, as well as data limitations in light of the context and purpose of the study.  Relevant auxiliary information can contribute to evaluating the CCD, as can sensitivity analyses conducted at the modeling stage. It is argued that early courses in statistical methods, and the textbooks they rely on, typically give little emphasis to, or omit entirely, discussion of the importance of data scrutiny in scientific research. This inattention and lack of guided, practical experience leaves students unprepared for the real world of empirical studies. Instructors should both cultivate in their students a true respect for data and engage them in authentic empirical research involving real data, rather than the context-free data to which they are usually exposed.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.3.447
Pages: 447-463
cloud_download 289
visibility 517
2
Article Metrics
Views
289
Download
517
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...

Response times are one of the important sources that provide information about the performance of individuals during a test process. The main purpose of this study is to show that survival models can be used in educational data. Accordingly, data sets of items measuring literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills of the countries participating in Round 3 of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies were used. Accelerated failure time models have been analyzed for each country and domain.  As a result of the analysis of the models in which various covariates are included as independent variables, and response time for giving correct answers is included as a dependent variable, it was found the associations between the covariates and response time for giving correct answers were concluded to vary from one domain to another or from one country to another. The results obtained from the present study have provided the educational stakeholders and practitioners with valuable information.

description Abstract
visibility View cloud_download PDF
10.12973/ijem.7.4.571
Pages: 571-586
cloud_download 207
visibility 590
2
Article Metrics
Views
207
Download
590
Citations
Crossref
2

Scopus

...