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'pls' Search Results



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Pictologics (PLS) is a language teaching method which relies on imaginative usage of pictures. The current paper reports the effects of applying this method on enhancing critical thinking ability of the Malaysian students. 69 students (32 boys & 37 girls) in two classes in a public primary school in Penang, Malaysia participated in this study. The experiment covered ten 1-hour sessions which were all audio-recorded and video-taped. The main objective was to engage the students in short conversations in English by using new words that they were learning via PLS. The following qualitative instruments were employed in this study: interviews with the teachers, focus group interviews with the students, a group interview with students’ parents, class check-list of the students’ behavior during the sessions, photos, and video footages. The findings reveal significant patterns of critical thinking among the students such as recognizing and criticizing assumptions, giving reasons to support a conclusion, incorporating isolated data into a wider framework, and using analogies to solve problems. The author strongly recommends application of adopted PLS techniques to be used either alone, or combined with the other conventional language teaching methods.

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10.12973/ijem.4.4.243
Pages: 243-257
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The first step towards discussing a phenomenon or a concept in depth and with powerful scientific principles and methodology is to develop, adapt and utilize tools that accurately measure and discover the problem. For this purpose, the present study concentrated on paternalistic leadership, which is a new concept in the field of management, and reliability and validity studies on the scale (PLS) that was used to assess paternalistic leadership by Cheng et al. (2004) were conducted to add the scale to the national literature. The study was conducted on the data collected from 326 (EFA) + 255 (CFA) research assistants to determine the validity of the scale. In a determination of the reliability of the scale, item-total point correlations and Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficient were used. In order to determine how the scale works in different cultural and qualitative samples, the adaptation version was discussed by comparing with the previous factor analysis studies of the PLS. The analysis showed that adaptation version of the PLS, with the structure of its 3 sub-dimensional and 23-items, will able to be used in studies aiming to determine the characteristics of paternalistic leadership in the organizational structure and management processes of universities for the researchers working in the field of higher education.

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10.12973/ijem.4.4.267
Pages: 267-285
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468
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999
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This research examines the English language teachers’ motivations related to the usage of role-playing on English language practice in rural secondary schools in Ecuador. The sample consists of 45 English language teachers who work in public schools located in the rural and urban areas of the province of Manabi. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research approaches is applied to analyze teachers’ motivations about using role-plays in English class and analyze the relationships between teaching motivations and the factors: teachers’ gender and work location. The instruments are (1) Focus group guide to collect participants' voices about the language practice at schools; and the (2) Likert questionnaire created by the research team, titled: Teachers' perceptions about role-play contribution on the foreign language acquisition process. The statistical analysis shows significant relationships between teachers’ perceptions and the factors in gender and work location. It is concluded that English teachers, both female and male from rural and urban locations in Ecuador, are highly motivated to use role-play in secondary schools as a teaching strategy, in spite of the demand of extra time and energy required, because it promotes in teachers and students the collaborative and creative learning; and improves their confidence to express their ideas and feelings using English as a foreign language.

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10.12973/ijem.5.2.289
Pages: 289-303
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The curriculum of an elementary school of Indonesian education currently emphasizes the affective aspects as a result of student learning for the sustainability of national development. This fact encourages teachers the responsibility to create and develop effective learning tools to foster tolerance, nationalism, be communicative and friendly, love peace, and social care. The objective of the study is to analyze the needs of students in elementary schools towards the development of educational comics to foster character development. This study uses qualitative approach. Participants were 120 fifth grade students. A questionnaire was used to collect the data of the study. The data were analyzed using an interactive model. The results of the study revealed that there was an interest of students in comic media as a teaching aid containing local wisdom values for character education. In the aspect of construction, comics are needed that are related to the ideal scope and size of the comics. In the aspect of content required comic material set in a national culture containing local wisdom, presentation of the story with the contents of an illustration of nationalism and social awareness. As for the design aspect and appearance, characterizations of cartoons are needed, involving a variety of colors, fonts of proportional size. The conclusion of this research is the development of educational comics media with local wisdom is needed to fulfill the needs of elementary school students as an effort to foster character.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.337
Pages: 337-343
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760
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The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the undergraduate programs implemented in different Foreign Language Departments on the basis of the pre-service teachers’ opinions by using the “Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP)” model. The current research was conducted on 40 pre-service teachers from the German, Arabic, French, and English Language Teaching Departments of the Gazi Education Faculty of Gazi University in the city of Ankara in Turkey in 2017-2018 academic year. The study was designed according to the qualitative research model. In this regard, the study employed the phenomenological method. As the data collection tool, a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used. In the analysis of the collected data, the descriptive analysis method was used. In the study, the context, input, process and product dimensions of foreign language teacher training programs were evaluated on the basis of student opinions. According to the results, the participants found the program sufficient in terms of reading, writing and listening skills but inadequate in terms of speaking skill. It seems that the participating students think that the foreign language teaching programs generally meet their needs but do not adequately meet their need for developing their speaking skill. It can be suggested that the class hours devoted to the development of the speaking skill should be increased. Arrangements such as using computer-based programs and increasing speaking lessons can be made for students to improve their speaking skill.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.367
Pages: 367-380
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325
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781
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During the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), English as a foreign language (EFL) students have to study and submit their assignments and quizzes through online systems using electronic files instead of hardcopies. This has created an opportunity for teachers to use computer tools to conduct preliminary assessment of the students’ writing performance and then give advice to them timely. Hence, this paper proposed some indicators which were essay readability scored by Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), length of essays, errors in writing and a method to assist the teachers in providing writing feedback to the students. The results showed a large difference in FRE, the number of words, sentences, paragraphs and errors. The K-means clustering findings were applied to classify groups of students based on writing proficiency indicators. The findings also revealed that the number of words and sentences in the essays indicated some deficiencies. The concept of paragraph should be reinforced while some specific errors such as misspelling, grammatical and typographical errors found need to be eliminated. This study showcased that the computer tools should be integrated to process the students’ essays so that the teachers can pinpoint the problems and make suggestions to their students in appropriate time. Lastly, the results can be served as the guidelines for the teachers to develop and adjust teaching materials pertinent to writing to enhance the writing performance of EFL learners.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.55
Pages: 55-68
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Lecturers have different perceptions of the effect of internal continuous assessment (ICASS) on students at tertiary vocational education and training (TVET) colleges. This qualitative multiple case study explored computer practice module lecturer’s experience of internal continuous assessment (ICASS) in three KwaZulu-Natal TVET colleges. Six lecturers were purposively selected from three KwaZulu-Natal TVET colleges. Drawing from an interpretivist perspective, constructivist theory entailing cognitive and social constructivism guided this study. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Collected data were transcribed, categorized into codes and themes emerged using thematic data analysis method. The findings revealed that it was difficult to complete the curriculum due to limited time and assessments methods were limited and did not meet the diverse needs of students. Lecturers had to work beyond the set assessment schedules to cater students who missed or scored below average marks. Moderation and assessment feedback were not considered as a critical aspect in the ICASS. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis hindered the successful implementation of the ICASS. It is recommended that the policy makers should insist TVET college managements to offer specialized in-service training for lecturers’ professional development and upgrade the infrastructure and equipment. Time should be set for teaching activities to enhance effective learning so that extra lectures can be offered to students with limited or no previous computer knowledge and encourage them to follow the comments by lecturers as a corrective assessment feedback. It is concluded that lecturers should use diverse assessment methods to improve students’ ICASS.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.151
Pages: 151-162
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This article aims to identify the psychological factors of students that correlate with the smart risk-taking behavior of high school students in Indonesia. The data in this study were distributed to 227 students from 3 (three) regions in Indonesia and evaluated using the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis technique. This study found that students' self-confidence was the biggest factor influencing the increase in smart risk-taking behavior, followed by the intention to learn chemistry and teacher support responses. These three factors were found to positively and significantly influence smart risk-taking behavior. However, we found that the smart risk-taking behavior of high school students in Indonesia is still poor. Therefore, it is necessary to have a learning strategy to utilize information technology in chemistry learning. We made several contributions, such as (a) developing a conceptual framework of psychological factors that can increase students' smart risk-taking behavior in chemistry learning that has not been extensively researched and developed by previous researchers; and (b) mapping out how the three psychological factors of students can be maximized to increase smart risk-taking behavior. For this reason, this research is expected to provide practical and academic contributions that can be used as a reference for bank management and further research.

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10.12973/ijem.9.3.493
Pages: 493-507
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344
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Unveiling the Linguistic Landscape: The Gendered Impacts on Language Learning Strategies for Introverted Learners

gender introverted learners language learning strategies vietnamese english-major students

Thanh Thao Le , Anh Thi Nguyen , Thi Hai Yen Thieu , Hoang Yen Phuong , Trut Thuy Pham , Thi Anh Thu Huynh , Huong Tra Nguyen


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This study explores the impact of gender on the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted students in Vietnam, given the burgeoning role of English as an international lingua franca. A mixed-methods approach, involving survey questionnaires and follow-up interviews, was utilized to gather both quantitative and qualitative data from a cohort of 68 English major undergraduates, 29 of whom self-identified as introverted via the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The investigation provides a comprehensive understanding of the preferred language learning strategies among introverted learners, and specifically examines how gender influences these strategic choices. The results reveal that gender does not present significant differences in the preferred English language learning strategies of self-perceived introverted individuals. Regardless of gender, introverted language learners demonstrate a tendency towards compensation learning strategies, with specific strategies such as deductive reasoning, organizing physical environs, and error rectification receiving almost identical responses from both male and female participants. These findings suggest that the role of personality traits, such as introversion, should be considered in tailoring pedagogical approaches to meet individual learning preferences and needs. Further research is needed to explore this area in greater depth and to examine its broader implications for English language teaching pedagogy.

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10.12973/ijem.9.4.711
Pages: 711-723
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147
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437
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Multicultural education is expected to improve the frameworks of educational institutions so that students from various ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic groups have equal academic accomplishment possibilities. It is essential for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners and teachers in Indonesia since English has its own culture. This research aims to comprehend the practices of multiliteracies in incorporating multicultural education in extensive reading classes. This investigation used a qualitative case study using observation and in-depth interviews to collect data from the lecturer. The results showed that the lecturer incorporated all aspects of multicultural education in multiliteracies practices using a novel. While generating cultural value from students’ life experiences, the researchers discovered content integration, knowledge scaffolding, equity pedagogy, bias degradation, and empowerment of school culture. Multiliteracies practices can serve as an innovative teaching technique to promote multicultural education. Additionally, EFL lecturers need multicultural learning materials to support this and to encourage students to think critically.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.865
Pages: 65-77
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164
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467
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Integrating Computational Thinking Into Mathematics Class: Curriculum Opportunities and the Use of the Bee-Bot

bee-bot computational thinking mathematical thinking primary education

Carolina Salinas , María José Seckel , Adriana Breda , Carmen Espinoza


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The incorporation of Computer Science teaching in educational systems has increased in recent years. Given international interest, Chile has promoted projects to promote the development of students' digital skills. Focusing on this new educational context, this research reports the results regarding the identification of computational concepts and practices that can be articulated with the contents and skills of the curriculum. of Chilean mathematics. for first grade of primary school based on the use of the Bee-Bot robot. For this, the study followed a qualitative approach, developing a case study of the Chilean study program with the content analysis technique and using, as analysis categories, computational concepts and practices from the field of educational computing. In total, 30 learning objectives of the study program were analyzed. The results indicate that, although there is little articulation between computational concepts and first grade content proposed in the curriculum, there is greater articulation between computational practices and mathematical skills suggested in the Chilean curriculum. It is concluded that Computational Thinking can be developed from the earliest school levels using the Bee-Bot robot (or similar), and this is demonstrated by the structure of the Chilean primary mathematics curricular program.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.937
Pages: 137-149
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389
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Validity and Reliability of Child-Friendly School Policy Evaluation Instruments in Primary Schools: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

child-friendly school confirmatory factor analysis primary school

Riana Nurhayati , Suranto Aw , Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum , Mami Hajaroh , Herwin Herwin


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Evaluation of child-friendly school (CFS) policies is essential to determine the achievements of school efforts in reducing violence cases. This research aims to proving the reliability and validity of CFS policy evaluation instruments in elementary schools with different locations. This investigation uses the Context Input Process Product (CIPP) evaluation model to confirm the factor structure or dimensions of several observed variables (items) to evaluate the reliability and validity of the CFS policy evaluation tool in elementary schools. The validity and reliability of previously created instruments are evaluated quantitatively, but this study utilises different subjects and study sites. There were 320 respondents, with 145 school principals and 175 teachers taken randomly. Confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) results show goodness of fit (GOF), and the model is acceptable. The CFS evaluation instrument can be accepted after eliminating several question items and modifying them. All items of the teal instrument meet the goodness of fit criteria in terms of chi-square and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). The instrument for evaluating CFS policies in primary schools using the CIPP model has met a valid and reliable psychometric property test so that it can be applied.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.965
Pages: 165-177
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The field of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction has gained recognition worldwide, particularly in non-native English-speaking countries. However, traditional teaching methods fall short of meeting the needs of today's EFL learners. In response, the Production-Oriented Approach (POA) has emerged as a new pedagogical approach to address these challenges. Despite its significant impact on EFL education, there is a lack of reviews on the POA. This study conducted a systematic review to explore the POA's effectiveness, challenges, and future trends. Using the PRISMA framework, 31 articles from reputable databases (Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were analyzed, covering the years 2018 to 2023. The study's comprehensive analysis, employing Nvivo, revealed that the POA has immense potential for enhancing English learners' language skills, particularly in reading, speaking, writing, and translating. Moreover, the study highlighted the POA's positive influence on learners' affective factors, including motivation, confidence, critical thinking, and self-directed learning abilities. Nonetheless, the POA faces challenges for both teachers and learners, particularly during the transition from traditional methods and the associated increase in workload. Despite these challenges, this study unequivocally establishes the POA as an effective pedagogical approach for teaching EFL. Additionally, it identifies research gaps that must be addressed to sustain and improve EFL education in the future through further development of the POA.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1061
Pages: 261-277
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