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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Spiritual growth and development is frequently cited as an outcome of participation in service-learning projects.  However, little research has focused on measuring the students' ability to understand the connection between the service-learning experience and their personal faith and the ability to live out their Christian values in the field.  Notably missing from this particularly limited area of study is the Christian values convergence of being able to understand the worth of all people and a desire to be engaged in serving the community. Encompassing both quantitative and qualitative research methods, this study investigates undergraduate business students’ perceptions of the impact of a semester-long urban service-learning project on their spiritual lives and faith formation.  Specific attention is given to exploring the students' perception of faith as demarcated by the Christian praxis of the students' relationship with God and with others.

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10.12973/ijem.4.3.187
Pages: 187-194
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This study aims to conduct Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence. This study also aims to examine and improve early academic competence thoroughly on the basis of teachers’ ratings in Turkey, and lastly to contribute an assessment and measurement instrument to the literature which will enable to conduct further research in the field. This study was designed in a general survey model. The study included normally developing 619 36-72 month-old preschoolers attending to nursery classes and kindergartens affiliated to Afyonkarahisar Ministry of National Education in 2015-2016 academic year. The validity and reliability studies of the data obtained following the implementation of TRS-EAC, was completed. The Cronbach Alpha, split half test, test-retest reliability of the scale and its subscales were measured. TRS-EAC was found to be valid and reliable for 36-72 month-old children. It can be considered that the various studies that can be used TRS-EAC in Turkey will provide important contributions to the measurement power of this test.

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.43
Pages: 43-57
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606
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928
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Developing an Entrepreneurship Scale for 5th Grade Students

entrepreneurship entrepreneurship scale developing scale 5th grade students

Gokhan Sontay , Hale Yetim , Sevilay Karamustafaoglu , Orhan Karamustafaoglu


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The aim of this study is to develop an Entrepreneurship Scale to measure the entrepreneurial skills of 5th grade students and to conduct the reliability and validity of the scale. This research is a descriptive survey method. The pilot application was made with 432 students in Amasya City in Turkey. SPSS 23 and LISREL 8.80 programs were used to analyze the data. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to construct the validity. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, a 4-factor structure emerged on the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the structure, and it was determined that the developed model was in compliance with the criteria in the literature. These sub-factors were identified as meaningful in terms of self-confidence, need for success, personal benefit and leadership and responsibility. The Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was determined as 0.77. At the end of the research, a reliable and valid measurement scale about entrepreneurship was developed for the 5th grade students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.2.203
Pages: 203-220
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Computational thinking is a way of thinking that covers 21st century skills and includes new generation concepts such as robotics, coding, informatics and information construction. Computational thinking has reached an important point especially in the field of science in line with the rapid developments in technology. Robotics applications, software-based activities, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) education and problem-based studies are some of the areas where this thinking is used. In this study, which is based on this point, it is aimed to develop a scale for computational thinking. Exploratory sequential design, one of the mixed research methods, was used in the study. First of all, a detailed literature review was conducted and needs analysis was carried out. This study consists of two stages. In the first stage, exploratory factor analysis was performed and analyzed with SPSS 23 program. In the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis was performed and analyzed with LISREL 9.2 program. As a result of the study, the goodness of fit indexes of the scale was found. According to this; X2/df value 1.81; NNFI value 0.97; NFI value 0.93; CFI value 0.98; RMR value 0.05; SRMR value 0.04; AGFI value 0.91 and GFI value was found to be 0.93. When the reliability values of the study were examined, Cronbach’s Alpha value was found to be 0.86. As a result of the research, a computational thinking scale consisting of 3 factors and 30 items was developed. This scale was developed for prospective teachers and can be used at all levels of prospective teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.421
Pages: 421-432
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The aim of this study is to compare 2018 Science Course Curriculum (SCC), 2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and 2018 High School Entrance Examination (HSE) in terms of content domains, cognitive domains and learning objectives. Qualitative research method, was used in this study. Data were analyzed using document review matrices to determine the similarities and differences between the objectives of SCC, TIMSS and HSE. SCC outcomes and HSE science questions were also classified according to TIMSS cognitive domains. Results show that the learning objectives of the fields of Physics, Biology and Earth Sciences of TIMSS are compatible with those of all grade levels of SCC and that the objectives of Chemistry are compatible with those of the seventh and eighth grades. Most of HSE questions are compatible with the objectives of SCC, however, the latest revision in the curriculum has introduced some eighth grade objectives to other grade levels. HSE science questions measure higher-level skills than TIMSS science questions. The subject domain of the “Organisms and Life” of SCC has the most learning objectives in the levels of “knowing” and “reasoning” while the subject domain of the “Physical Events” has the most learning objectives in the levels of “applying.” Besides, the seventh-, fifth- and eighth-graders have the most objectives in the levels of “knowing,” “applying,” and “reasoning,” respectively. It is hoped that the results will contribute the literature in improvement of science curricula and interpretation of national and international exams.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.3.433
Pages: 433-449
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887
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1212
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2

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Social Studies Teacher Candidates’ Perception of Digital Citizenship

social studies digital citizenship technology

Nurhak Cem Dedebali , Iskender Dasdemir


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With the rapid pace of technological and digital change, the use of mass communication and digital communication tools, and internet usage have become very prevalent and thus digital citizenship education has become a necessity for individuals so that they can effectively use these technologies. In this respect, in-class and out-of-class activities play a crucial role in developing students’ digital citizenship competencies in social studies education. Teacher candidates’ perception of digital citizenship will influence students as well. The objective of the current study is to identify the perception of the social studies teacher candidates towards digital citizenship. A descriptive cross-sectional screening model was utilized in the study. The sample of the study is composed of senior teacher candidates attending the Social Studies Teaching Department, Faculty of Education of Ege University in the 2016-2017 academic year. Digital Citizenship Attitude Scale was employed to identify the perceptions of teacher candidates towards digital citizenship. The analysis of the results in the context of subdimensions indicates that no statistically significant difference was found by the gender variable, however significant differences was observed in digital citizenship levels of the teacher candidates according to the variables of owning a personal computer, age and years of experience in computer use.

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10.12973/ijem.5.3.465
Pages: 465-477
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Positive attitude towards statistics is a desirable aspect in developing statistical thinking and understanding statistical concept. The attitude towards statistics instrument in previous study on rural school students lacked evidence in the validity analysis. Therefore, there is a need to provide a valid instrument that can assess rural secondary school students’ attitude toward statistics. For this purpose, this study was carried out to investigate the validity and reliability analysis of the Survey Attitude towards Statistics (SATS-36) instrument from a sample of rural secondary school students. The SATS-36 is a 7-point Likert type scale questionnaire, used to measure students’ attitude towards statistics. The SATS-36 instrument was distributed to 217 Tenth grade science stream students from a rural district in Sabah, Malaysia, which comprised of 66 (30.4%) boys and 151 (69.6%) girls. A second order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was carried out to analyze the validity of the SATS-36 instrument as well as to confirm the 6-factor model of SATS-36. The reliability of SATS-36 instrument was assessed through the Cronbach’s Alpha value. Overall, the analysis showed that the SATS-36 instrument shows favorable indices for both its validity and reliability. Thus, it can be concluded that the SATS-36 was a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students’ attitude towards statistics among rural science stream secondary school students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.651
Pages: 651-661
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2055
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18

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14

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This study aimed to develop an instructional design that focuses on programming teaching for gifted and talented students and to investigate its effects on the teaching process. During the development of the instructional design; the steps of Morrison, Ross and Kemp Instructional Design Model were followed. Embedded experimental design, one of the mixed-method research designs, was used in the modeling of the study. The participants consisted of students studying at the Science and Art Center (BILSEM) (experimental group: 13 girls and 12 boys, control group: 10 girls and 15 boys). While the instructional design developed by the researchers was applied to the gifted and talented students in the experimental group, the standard activities used in Information Technologies and Software Courses at BILSEM were applied to the gifted and talented students in the control group. “Computational Thinking Scale (CTS)”, “Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TCTT-Figural)” and “Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale (CPSES)” were used to collect the data of the quantitative phase of the study. Qualitative data were gathered by using interview form, observation forms, and design thinking rubric. Two-Factor ANOVA Test, Bonferroni Adjustment Multiple Comparisons Test, and interaction graphs were used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. The quantitative results of the research showed that the instructional design was effective on students' computational thinking and creative thinking skills, but not on programming self-efficacy. Qualitative findings revealed that the instructional design helped the students learn the computational concepts, use computational applications, and develop computational-perspectives. Also, students improved their design thinking skills to a certain level and expressed that they enjoyed the design thinking process, learned the course content, and experienced some difficulties.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.1.161
Pages: 161-183
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10

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E-learning pedagogy is used in many health training institutions in Uganda, However, despite the high investment, e-learning adoption is still low. This study aimed at ascertaining the relevance of on-line quality management in improve e-learning adoption in midwifery schools in Uganda. It used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design to ascertain if on-line quality management was significant at improving e-learning adoption and the on-line quality traits which would be implemented by midwifery schools to improve e-learning adoption. Data collection was conducted in two phases, the first entailed quantitative data collection and analysis to determine if on-line quality management was significant to e-learning adoption. The second embraced a qualitative data collection and analysis to ascertain the detailed traits of on-line quality management relevant to e-learning adoption. Linear regression analysis established on-line quality management had influence on e-learning adoption (p=0.000). On-line quality management accounted for 55.5% of the variance in e-learning adoption with a strong positive statistically significant relationship, and its salient traits included; Compact Disc, Read-Only-Memory materials meets the expectation of users, collaborative improvement of on-line quality, Learning Management System meets expectations of users, providing the best on-line experience, e-learning program being described as an excellent on-line learning experience, and guidelines for improving on-line quality. Midwifery schools therefore have to focus on the six most relevant traits of on-line quality management if they are to improve e-learning adoption.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.2.271
Pages: 271-283
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447
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1141
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3

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Xenophobia, being hostile to foreigners and feeling fear of them, is considered as hating and having prejudices against the people of other nations. It is noticed that with the increase of migration movements on a global scale in recent years, xenophobia has become one of the more critical subjects in the scientific world. Determining the relationships between xenophobic attitudes and personal traits is considered as one of the important steps in developing relationships especially among people from different cultures. By detecting positive personality traits and negative personality traits associated with xenophobia, interpersonal relationships can be developed. Accordingly, in the current study, it is aimed to determine the relationships between xenophobia and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy). For this purpose, data were collected from 422 (342 females, 80 males) university students via the data collection tools, which are “Xenophobia Scale”, “Adjectives Based Personality Test” and “Dirty Dozen Scale”. The data were analyzed by stepwise regression technique. As a result of the analyzes, it has been observed that agreeableness, which is among the five-factor personality traits, and psychopathy and narcissism, which are among the dark triad-personality traits predicted xenophobia significantly. Accordingly, it was determined that the agreeable people had lower levels of xenophobic attitudes. Psychopathy and narcissism personality traits have been observed to lead to higher levels of xenophobic attitudes.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.3.545
Pages: 545-554
cloud_download 568
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568
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912
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4

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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between effective communication skills and verbal intelligence levels of Faculty of Sports Sciences students according to variables such as gender, department, age, academic grade point average (GPA), and way of taking the Effective Communication Skills (ECS) course. The correlational survey model was used in the research. The subjects were 230 volunteer university students, chosen by simple random sampling method. The Multiple Intelligence Areas Inventory and The Effective Communication Skills Scale were used. The result showed that there was a significant difference in favor of female students in terms of effective listening by gender. A significant difference was found in favor of the Recreation Department in terms of self-recognition/self-disclosure, I-language, and verbal intelligence sub-dimensions. A significant difference was found in favor of 21-23 age in self-recognition/self-disclosure sub-dimension by age variable. According to academic GPA, a significant difference was found in the verbal intelligence sub-dimension in favor of those whose academic GPA was 3.15-3.57. In addition, according to way of taking the ECS course, a significant difference was found in favor of the compulsory course in the sub-dimensions of ego supportive language, self-recognition/self-disclosure, and I-language. Besides, it was determined that there is a positive and significant relationship between students' effective communication skills and verbal intelligence levels. As a result, it has been determined that, in terms of the development of communication skills, it is important that the ECS course is included in the curriculum as part of the compulsory course.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.3.603
Pages: 603-612
cloud_download 1077
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1077
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1116
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E-learning has become a viable mean to both Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and Small Private Open Courses (SPOCs). Research has shown that the quality and effectiveness of these types of courses depend largely on the contextual factors that may impact the design and development of online courses. This study highlights a design framework for a SPOC offered at Sultan Qaboos University. It employs a design-based research methodology, which is a systematic research approach aimed to improve instructional practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation to produce contextually-sensitive design principles. The sample of this study consists of a diverse group of subjects including instructional designers, subject-matter experts, as well as students. The findings illustrate the importance of contextual logistics that need to be considered in the design and development of SPOCs. The findings also highlight the importance of the DBR as a suitable research methodology for similar developmental studies.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.1
Pages: 1-13
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The aim of this study is to examine the motivation levels and future expectations of preservice teachers studying in Mathematics and Science Teaching Departments comparatively. The population of study consisted of preservice teachers studying at Mathematics and Science Teaching Departments at Education Faculties of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University and Akdeniz University. The sample consisted of 470 preservice teachers. In research, the correlational survey model was used. Research data were collected with "Adult Motivation Scale" and "Future Expectations Scale". In data analyzing, statistics package program was used. Accordingly, t-test was used for variables with two categories and One Factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for more than two categories. Sheffe multiple comparison test was used if it was significant. Pearson Correlation was used to determine whether there is a significant relationship between preservice teachers' motivation levels and future expectations. According to analysis results, motivation levels of preservice teachers were found to be high. Likewise, it was concluded that preservice teachers' expectations for future were highly positive. In preservice teachers' motivation levels and expectations for future, gender, major, type of high school they graduated and major satisfaction they study were found to be effective.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.119
Pages: 119-136
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614
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673
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2

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Preschool Teachers’ Preparation Programs: The Use of Puppetry for Early Childhood Science Education

early childhood science education puppets teacher education teaching methods

Erdinc Ocal , Abdulhamit Karademir , Ozkan Saatcioglu , Beyza Demirel


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This paper investigated how puppetry could be used to improve the standards of early childhood science education. This study determined the effect of a puppet-making and puppetry workshop on preservice preschool teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards science education and looked into their experiences during and after puppet-making. Although participants faced some difficulties during the workshop, they developed numerous socioemotional skills. Puppetry activities can help preservice teachers learn how to deliver child-centered, stimulating, and interactive classes. Using puppets in early childhood science education can help teachers develop positive attitudes towards science and offer students high-quality, engaging, and creative activities.

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10.12973/ijem.7.2.305
Pages: 305-318
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This research’s aim was to explore the role of cognitive flexibility in mediating the effect of intrinsic motivation on the creativity of junior high school students. A creativity scale, an intrinsic motivation inventory and a cognitive flexibility inventory were utilized to investigate a sample of junior high school students in Shaanxi Province in western China. 765 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed using the structural equation model (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that intrinsic motivation and cognitive flexibility have significantly positive impacts on junior high school students’ creativity. Furthermore, a full model revealed that cognitive alternatives and cognitive control mediate the relationship intrinsic motivation and creativity, and the mediation effect of cognitive alternatives is significantly greater than that of cognitive control. In general, the current research suggests that the impact of intrinsic motivation on junior high school students’ creativity is mediated by cognitive flexibility, and its results amplify prior scholars’ research results and give educators an inspiration how to cultivate creativity for the middle school students.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.8.2.297
Pages: 297-312
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490
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659
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The purpose of this study was to establish the factor structure and dimensionality of the Metacognitive Orientation Learning Environment Scale – Science (MOLES-S) in the Thai context. The metacognitive orientation of a science classroom learning environment is defined as the extent to which psychosocial conditions that are known to enhance students’ metacognition are evident in a specific science classroom. This study builds on earlier work in the research areas of science education, metacognition, and learning environments. A sample of 5418 Thai science students in grades 10 to 12, from 40 schools across Thailand, completed the MOLES-S that had been translated into Thai. Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken and Rasch analysis was used to calibrate the scale and explore its dimensionality. The results suggest that the MOLES-S(T), where (T) represents Thailand, has the same factor structure as the original MOLES-S, is reliable, and can be used with confidence in research into metacognition in Thai high school science classrooms.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.805
Pages: 805-818
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246
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508
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1

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Online game addiction and psychological distress are two continuously developing problems in the Philippines, with Filipinos aged 18 to 24 being the second largest age group to overuse interactive online-related games. This sequential explanatory mixed method study aimed to assess the young adults’ gaming addiction and perceived psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic and identify the other factors contributing to the respondents’ frequent engagement in online interactive games, which served as a basis for a preventive intervention program. The researcher administered the survey questionnaires of the Gaming Addiction Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 to 399 young adults aged 18–24 and a semi-structured interview guide to 20 addicted and non-addicted gamers. Key results showed that a small percentage of the respondents experienced polythetic and serious monothetic addiction to interactive online games. In contrast, half of the respondents manifested mild to moderate symptoms of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Major findings also found no significant gender differences in the level of online game addiction and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, and a moderate level of relationship substantiated the association. Further results revealed that the negative compensatory factors were associated with addicted gamers’ frequent engagement with online games, whereas non-addicted gamers were associated with positive, beneficial factors. This phenomenon has hardly ever been the focus of in-depth research, and the results of this study can be used to further refine the conceptualization of “internet gaming disorder” as a mental disorder and develop a more comprehensive treatment method.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.9.1.29
Pages: 29-40
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622
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2368
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Education for sustainable development (ESD) refers to education on the values and behaviors necessary for a sustainable future and society where everyone receives high-quality benefits. In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, convergence thinking is emphasized as a method of ESD. Therefore, this study aims to derive a model for developing open convergence subjects for ESD. The idea for this model was derived by combining the process of establishing a Convergence Department at Rey Juan Carlos University in Spain and the unit activities of Kyoto University in Japan. The challenges of failing to achieve the original goal and purpose of convergence due to emphasizing specific majors were solved by defining requirements for the model. Convergence subjects that meet the requirements are developed by following the order of the proposed model. In the future, a convergence subject pilot model will be applied using the proposed model to present and operate a course development process called “technology and future are seen through the window of currency”.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.249
Pages: 249-259
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The Effect of Gersmehl’s Spatial Learning on Students’ Disaster Spatial Literacy

disaster gersmehl spatial learning spatial literacy

Purwanto , Niswatul Hidayah , Satti Wagistina


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Learning geography in Indonesia philosophically aims to develop spatial literacy. Students must improve spatial literacy to form reasoning skills and apply spatial concepts in real life. Applying Gersmehl's spatial learning can improve students' spatial literacy through syntax arranged based on spatial aspects. The use of google earth helps students to complete case studies of disaster mitigation materials without the need to go directly to the field. This quasi-experimental research refers to the posttest-only control group design by comparing the posttest of spatial literacy in the experimental and control classes. This study involved students of class XI IPS SMAN 1 Blitar City. The instrument is a five-point description test based on indicators of spatial literacy in disaster mitigation materials standardized with validity and reliability tests. The research data were analyzed using normality, homogeneity, and hypothesis tests. The data tested were in the form of posttest scores for spatial literacy in the experimental and control classes. The results of Gersmehl's spatial learning influence spatial literacy. The use of LKPD bridges the implementation of spatial learning syntax with Google Earth as a geospatial medium. The implementation of syntax in spatial learning is interrelated with spatial literacy indicators, thereby increasing students' spatial literacy based on experience and spatial recognition.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.9.2.345
Pages: 345-354
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308
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475
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This study investigated college students’ career maturity as a mediator of the effect of professional identity on academic achievement. The researchers developed a structural equation model and a research hypothesis using the Chinese college students’ professional identity scale, career maturity scale, and academic achievement scale. After experts’ revision and confirmatory analysis, the 3 scales had sufficient reliability, validity, and fit. The researchers distributed electronic questionnaires to students in 4 universities in Jilin Province, China, and participants responded using 5-point Likert-type scales. The researchers collected 1,104 valid questionnaires. According to the analysis, college students’ professional identity is a positive predictor of their academic achievement, and career maturity partially mediates the influence of professional identity on academic achievement. Therefore, improving Chinese college students’ professional identity may improve their academic achievement, and professional identity can have a positive effect on academic achievement through career maturity. University administrators and teachers should enhance the career maturity of college students and promote their professional development.

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10.12973/ijem.9.2.397
Pages: 397-408
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243
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570
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