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'problem types' Search Results



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In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationship between prospective teachers' occupational anxiety and technological pedagogical content knowledge. Correlational model was used in this study. The participants consisted of 481 prospective teachers studying at Sakarya University Faculty of Education in the spring term of 2018-2019 academic year. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale (TPACKS) and Occupational Anxiety Scale (OAS) were used as data collection instruments. As a result of canonical correlation analysis, it was determined that technological pedagogical content knowledge affects occupational anxiety by 62%.

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10.12973/ijem.5.3.407
Pages: 407-420
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1003
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It has been well documented that oral language skills are precursors of the development of written abilities, meaning that improving oral language skills, e.g. vocabulary, listening comprehension, could have positive effects reading comprehension. The main aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a training program focused on four components of comprehension ability provided in listening or written modality on first-graders’ reading and listening comprehension. The training programs were implemented by school teachers as part of the class’s normal school activities, under the supervision of experts. Their efficacy was compared with the results obtained in a passive control group. Our results showed that both the training programs produced positive effects on listening and reading comprehension (by comparison with a passive control group), and that the gains in reading comprehension were maintained at a five-month follow-up. Findings demonstrated specific improvements in listening comprehension with the listening modality program, as well as an improvement in the modality not directly trained. A similar cross-modality effect was found from the written modality training group, therefore confirming the strict relation between oral and written abilities. Reading comprehension performance of first graders can be improved with activities provided in listening and written modality. Hence, it is possible to enhance reading comprehension even before decoding and fluency in reading are acquired.

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10.12973/ijem.7.1.187
Pages: 187-200
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987
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1081
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An essential qualification requirement of the teachers´ profession is to handle the conflict situations effectively focusing on cultivation healthy kinds of relationship with other participants of the educational process, keeping discipline, communicative and good teaching atmosphere. In this contribution, we compare styles used in solving the conflict situations insight teaching profession objectively. Slovak elementary school teachers (N = 22) and secondary grammar school teachers (N = 42) were ask to complete a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions with 5 types of solving the conflict situations at school (avoiding, fighting, compromising, accommodating, collaborating). The occurrence and the use of different teachers´ approaches to solving the conflict situation were compared and analyzed. The Likert scaling and the method verified by professor Northouse were used for data evaluation. It is of high importance to pay attention to the dominant style (or the absent one) of solving the conflict situations in the teacher-student, teacher-teacher or teacher-superior interactions and to explore the differences of applying them.

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10.12973/ijem.5.4.535
Pages: 535-545
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665
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2507
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In the current study, the problems posed by pre-service primary school teachers within the context of semi-structured problem formation were analyzed according to their type, cognitive structure, and content knowledge. A total of 134 pre-service primary school teachers attending a state university in Turkey participated in the current study designed in line with the case study design. The pre-service teachers were presented with a table and they were asked to establish a problem suitable for the elementary level using the data given in the table. The data were collected through the established problem statements and written explanations of the participants. The collected data were analyzed by using both content and descriptive analyses. The findings have revealed that the pre-service teachers less preferred real-life problems than routine type of problems and the problems at the level of reasoning than the problems at the levels of knowing and applying. Moreover, nearly half of the pre-service teachers erroneously expressed the grade level for which they established their problem. The results have shown that the pre-service teachers do not adequately use real-life problems and problems at the level of reasoning and that there are deficiencies in their mathematical content knowledge depending on their knowledge of the curriculum.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.5.4.577
Pages: 577-590
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The aim this qualitative study is to determine current situation of policy on teacher employment model in Turkey from the perspectives of contracted teachers. The sample of the study consisted of 24 forms and branch teachers who were determined with the method of convenience sampling. The inclusion criterion for the sample was being contracted teachers who were employed in the provinces of Erzurum and Sanliurfa in Turkey in the academic year of 2017-2018. The data of the study was collected by using a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions. The data was analyzed by using the qualitative research method of content analysis. The findings of the study were discussed under the themes of the objective of contracted teaching, its negative aspects, and the future of the practice and solution recommendations. According to the results of the study, the vast majority of the participants were aware of the objectives of the practice of contracted teaching. The participants thought that the practice provided continuity in instruction-teaching and teachers at the schools they were appointed to. The vast majority of the participants were of the opinion that the practice of contracted teaching led to status discrimination as tenured-contracted teachers, and this reduced their motivations and organizational commitment. They stated that this practice carried negative aspects in terms of postgraduate education and being prospective teachers.

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10.12973/ijem.5.4.671
Pages: 671-682
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578
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840
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8

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7

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Kelley’s Discrimination Index (DI) is a simple and robust, classical non-parametric short-cut to estimate the item discrimination power (IDP) in the practical educational settings. Unlike item–total correlation, DI can reach the ultimate values of +1 and ‒1, and it is stable against the outliers. Because of the computational easiness, DI is specifically suitable for the rough estimation where the sophisticated tools for item analysis such as IRT modelling are not available as is usual, for example, in the classroom testing. Unlike most of the other traditional indices for IDP, DI uses only the extreme cases of the ordered dataset in the estimation. One deficiency of DI is that it suits only for dichotomous datasets. This article generalizes DI to allow polytomous dataset and flexible cut-offs for selecting the extreme cases. A new algorithm based on the concept of the characteristic vector of the item is introduced to compute the generalized DI (GDI). A new visual method for item analysis, the cut-off curve, is introduced based on the procedure called exhaustive splitting.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.237
Pages: 237 - 258
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1090
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6

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Adversity Quotient is a person's response to overcoming obstacles or problems. Barriers experienced, and the ability to overcome these obstacles vary in each person. This study was a literature review study focusing on adversity quotient in the field of education. This study reviewed several manuscripts that concentrated on research design, type of participants, and the critical role of adversity quotient in the field of education. A total of 18 articles were analyzed by exploring and reviewing manuscripts from trusted database journals, namely Scopus, Science Direct, and ERIC. This review explored three aspects of educational adversity quotient publications, including 1) the type of research design used in research related to adversity quotient in the field of education, 2) the types of participants chosen in research related to adversity quotient, and 3) the role of adversity quotient in education. Based on the results of manuscript reviews, adversity quotient research shows a great influence in the field of education. Research on adversity quotient shows that 1) descriptive and experimental research is the most commonly used design; 2) research participants in adversity quotient research are dominated by students, especially university students; 3) the role of adversity quotient is much shown in learning outcomes in the field of skills.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.6.3.507
Pages: 507-515
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself and continues during the disorder’s course with symptoms of inadequacies in social interaction and communication, limited and repetitive behaviors and limited interests. It was stated that the burden and fatigue stemming from the long-term care of the child, changing family roles and routines, difficulties encountered during diagnosis and access to services, getting insufficient information about the diagnosis, the need for information to access appropriate education and rehabilitation services and the economic burden caused by satisfying this need, and the difficulties in participating in social life account for burnout in parents of children with ASD. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental burnout, and the perceived social support level of parents of children with ASD and their satisfaction level from this support. In addition to this main purpose, (a) the relationship between parental burnout level, and the ages of the children with ASD, the time since diagnosis and parental age, and (b) whether there is a difference in the parental burnout level according to parental education level and gender were examined in the study. Data was collected from the parents of 296 children who met the criteria for participation in the study using the Participant Information Form, Parental Burnout Scale and Revised Parental Social Support Scale. The study results revealed that there was a weak and moderate negative relationship between perceived social support and parental burnout.

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10.12973/ijem.6.3.533
Pages: 533-543
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1871
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During the pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), English as a foreign language (EFL) students have to study and submit their assignments and quizzes through online systems using electronic files instead of hardcopies. This has created an opportunity for teachers to use computer tools to conduct preliminary assessment of the students’ writing performance and then give advice to them timely. Hence, this paper proposed some indicators which were essay readability scored by Flesch Reading Ease (FRE), length of essays, errors in writing and a method to assist the teachers in providing writing feedback to the students. The results showed a large difference in FRE, the number of words, sentences, paragraphs and errors. The K-means clustering findings were applied to classify groups of students based on writing proficiency indicators. The findings also revealed that the number of words and sentences in the essays indicated some deficiencies. The concept of paragraph should be reinforced while some specific errors such as misspelling, grammatical and typographical errors found need to be eliminated. This study showcased that the computer tools should be integrated to process the students’ essays so that the teachers can pinpoint the problems and make suggestions to their students in appropriate time. Lastly, the results can be served as the guidelines for the teachers to develop and adjust teaching materials pertinent to writing to enhance the writing performance of EFL learners.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.55
Pages: 55-68
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235
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546
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4

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3

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This study examined the effect of Yunnan’s ethnic minority college students’ acculturation on their academic achievement under the risk of the Matthew effect. Additionally, the role played by learning motivation in the relationship between ethnic minority college students’ acculturation and academic achievement was explored. A total of 403 valid questionnaires were collected from four areas in Yunnan province, China. Consequently, the Acculturation Scale, Academic Achievement Scale, and Learning Motivation Scale were used for measurement materials. These items of scales were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) and AMOS (analysis of a moment structures) softwares were used for data analyses. In addition, items were analyzed through item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis. These results indicated that ethnic minority college students with low acculturation and learning motivation or high acculturation and low learning motivation can become objects of the Matthew effect. However, this study also observed that in certain students, high acculturation and high learning motivation can prevent the Matthew effect. Thus, high acculturation is crucial for improving academic achievement in ethnic minority college students. A level of high learning motivation is a powerful moderator promoting the academic achievement of students with high acculturation.

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10.12973/ijem.8.2.199
Pages: 199-210
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355
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579
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The definition of creativity among professional mathematicians and the definition of mathematical creativity in the classroom context are significantly different. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ mathematical creativity (i.e., cognitive flexibility) and figure apprehension when solving geometric problems with novel auxiliary features such as straight lines and curved lines. In other words, this study determined if geometry knowledge influenced mathematical creativity (cognitive flexibility) in problem-solving. Grade-12 students participated in the intervention. The high school that is the research topic attempts to equip students with academic abilities and is, except for vocational schools, the most popular form of high school among all other types. Such a school was chosen for the study so that a significant proportion of students in Makassar could be represented. In this study, we discovered a relationship between cognitive flexibility and the geometric ability of pupils while solving problems involving auxiliary lines. This indicates that the usage of auxiliary lines as a reference for developing pupils’ creative thinking skills must be advocated. In addition, good geometric abilities (e.g., visual thinking, geometrical reasoning) will encourage pupils to generate various problem-solving concepts. This finding contributes significantly to future research by focusing on auxiliary lines.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.139
Pages: 139-150
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398
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445
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1

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This study aims to develop a schoolpreneur model appropriate for Malaysia's secondary school environment. The current study surveyed students participating in the Program Tunas Commerce (PROTUNe) and the Young Entrepreneurs Association (PUM) in the states of Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan to accomplish these purposes. A survey-based technique was used to collect data, and 400 students participated. With a cross-sectional research design, this research uses a quantitative research methodology. This research employed exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) for statistical analysis. The study's findings show that six highlighted factors can be incorporated to develop a schoolpreneur model. These factors all significantly affect the schoolpreneur model. A significant correlation of the schoolpreneur model of more than 60% indicates the significance of talent skills, mentors, incubators, individual personality, role models, and family background in the development of the schoolpreneur model. As a result, secondary schools can conduct entrepreneurial activities better due to the development of the schoolpreneur model.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.9.1.197
Pages: 197-214
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246
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609
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2

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Considering the fact that learning difficulties are mostly related to academic learning, and students first encounter tasks related with academic learning during the pre-school, it is critical for early intervention that the first symptoms of students with potential learning disability are detected by the pre-school teachers. The aim of this research is to examine knowledge levels of pre-school teachers about the characteristics of learning difficulties that 3–6 years old students, in the pre-school period, may show. With this aim in mind, the development of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” was completed with 471 pre-school teachers and pre-school teacher candidates of the last grade of pre-school education program. The research has been done in the survey model with a quantitative approach. The sample of the study consists of 291 pre-school teachers. The data have been collected by means of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” and analyzed using descriptive statistics techniques. At the end of the research, it has been found that there are no statistically significant differences in knowledge levels of pre-school teachers regarding the cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities in terms of their gender, the program they have graduated from, having taken courses on special education, having taken courses on learning disabilities, the types of institutions they worked at, and their class sizes. It has been found that there are statistically significant differences in their knowledge levels about cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities according to the length of service, teaching students with learning disabilities, having inclusive students in their class, having a relative in need of special education, and teaching students with learning disabilities variables.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.215
Pages: 215-226
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579
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The Pedagogical Role of the Primary-School Headteacher: Insights From Greece

headteacher pedagogical leadership school principal school climate school life

Nikolaos Alexopoulos , Thomas Babalis , Konstantina Tsoli , Stavroula Delioridou


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The pedagogical and didactic guidance of teachers has been linked, in the relevant literature, to the school management’s adoption of the model of pedagogical leadership as well as to the assurance of a series of factors that influence it. This study aims at investigating the pedagogical role of the principal in Greek primary schools. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire completed by 133 Greek primary school head teachers. Results show that head teachers consider that their pedagogical role has mainly to do with the pedagogical climate, psychosocial and pedagogical guidance of the school unit. Additionally, the research results show that head teachers carry out their pedagogical role cooperating and communicating mainly with the members of the educational community of the school. Another noteworthy finding of the present study is that the factors that support head teachers in their pedagogical leadership role, are hard to exist in hierarchical educational realities such as Greece. The originality of the paper draws attention to the school's socio-economic environment, which significantly influences school leadership. Conclusions on the implications of the study are made and directions for future research are suggested.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.9.3.535
Pages: 535-549
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255
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476
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The purpose of this study was to classify the active job behaviors of Generation Z (Gen Z, born after 1995) elementary school teachers and investigate relevant variables that significantly affect such a classification. A total of 375 Gen Z elementary school teachers who passed the National Elementary Teacher Qualification Test and had worked in elementary schools in South Korea participated in this study. The data collected identified the types of active job behaviors among Gen Z elementary school teachers using cross-tabulation through Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors that influence the types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers. The results were as follows: First, there are four types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers: Ideal, relational, non-participatory, and passive job performance types. Second, teacher efficacy, learning agility, organizational commitment, and principals’ transformational leadership influenced the types of active job behaviors of Gen Z elementary school teachers. The results offer insights into the human resource management of Gen Z elementary school teachers and have significant implications for improving the active job behavior of Gen Z elementary school teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.9.4.801
Pages: 801-814
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168
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435
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Mathematical modeling offers a promising approach to improving mathematics education. This study aims to determine if the concept of metacognitive awareness in the learning process is associated with mathematical modeling. This study also considers the interaction effect of sex and academic year level on both variables. Focusing the study on preservice elementary teachers might address potential issues and targeted intervention in their preparation program concerning their ability to teach and guide young learners in modeling activities. The research sample includes 140 preservice elementary teachers at Central Luzon State University, Philippines. Data collection used an adapted metacognitive awareness inventory and a validated researcher-made mathematical modeling competency test aligned with the K-12 mathematics curriculum in the Philippines. Results revealed that the preservice elementary teachers had a high metacognitive awareness and mathematical modeling competency, ranging from 22 to 31 out of 36 points. Besides, Factorial ANOVA indicates that academic year level positively affects both variables regardless of sex, and stepwise regression analysis unveiled that information management, declarative knowledge, and planning significantly predict 41.4% of the mathematical modeling competency variance. This suggests that developing metacognitive awareness supports preservice elementary teachers in performing modeling tasks that improve their competency level in mathematics.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.10.1.1079
Pages: 279-292
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222
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707
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