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'inclusive education' Search Results



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This study aims to conduct Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability studies of the Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence. This study also aims to examine and improve early academic competence thoroughly on the basis of teachers’ ratings in Turkey, and lastly to contribute an assessment and measurement instrument to the literature which will enable to conduct further research in the field. This study was designed in a general survey model. The study included normally developing 619 36-72 month-old preschoolers attending to nursery classes and kindergartens affiliated to Afyonkarahisar Ministry of National Education in 2015-2016 academic year. The validity and reliability studies of the data obtained following the implementation of TRS-EAC, was completed. The Cronbach Alpha, split half test, test-retest reliability of the scale and its subscales were measured. TRS-EAC was found to be valid and reliable for 36-72 month-old children. It can be considered that the various studies that can be used TRS-EAC in Turkey will provide important contributions to the measurement power of this test.

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10.12973/ijem.5.1.43
Pages: 43-57
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This study examines the effects of the SCAMPER technique-based educational activities in the simple machines unit of a science lesson on students' academic achievement, motivation and attitude. The study examines the effects of the simple machines unit activities in the science lesson through a paired quasi-experimental design, which is one of the quantitative research methods. The sample group of the research consists of 33 eighth-grade students studying in a middle school in the Ortaköy district of the Aksaray province in 2018–2019. The research uses simple random sampling method. The experimental group was given SCAMPER-based activities in the simple machines unit for 4 hours a week with a total of 16 hours, and lessons were conducted with the control group in line with the curriculum. To collect data within the framework of the research, the 'attitude scale towards science lesson', scale for 'students' motivation towards science learning' and 'simple machines unit achievement test' were used. As a result, when compared to the control group, there was a significant difference in the academic achievement and motivation of the experimental group who performed SCAMPER-based activities in the simple machines unit of the science lesson. There was no significant difference between the attitude scores of the experimental and control group as a result of the study.

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10.12973/ijem.7.1.155
Pages: 155-170
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550
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763
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5

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Inclusive Education and Pedagogical Change: Experiences from the Front Lines

inclusion teacher change pedagogy

Monique Somma , Sheila Bennett


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Many educators hold beliefs that including students, at least to some degree, has academic and social benefits, however, they struggle with fundamental pedagogy. With a global shift from a segregated lens to that of an inclusive lens, special education teachers who once held positive beliefs towards segregated special education are now faced with a new reality of teaching students with disabilities in inclusive classroom settings. This paper highlights the experiences of ten educators who transitioned from teaching in a self-contained class to an inclusive class. Focus group and interview themes indicated that all had experienced a shift in their pedagogy- their overall beliefs and teaching methods- after they taught students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Despite their special education training, these educators were challenged by their own beliefs and expectations, the attitudes of others, and systematic barriers within the education system. Highlights of their change process include the positive performance of students with disabilities, the growth and development of the other students, and their overall pedagogical self-reflection. As a result, a framework, the Inclusive Educators’ Continuum of Change, was developed to highlight the change process and connect this research to the literature on inclusion and teacher change. This diagram can provide teacher educators a framework for discussing pedagogical change. Implications for professional development and teacher training for inclusive practice, as well as maximizing the educator skills in Professional Learning Communities (PLC) and mentorship opportunities will be highlighted.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.285
Pages: 285-295
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Through the Looking Glass: Lesson Study in a Center School

lesson study professional development collaboration school culture significant disabilities pedagogy low expectations

Khalid Abu-Alghayth , Phyllis Jones , Daphne Pace-Phillips , Robin Meyers


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This article examined the role of Lesson Study in a center school located in the southeastern United States through an analysis of a narrative by the school principal. This methodology allowed a level of reflexivity across the research team, who appreciated hearing about the powerful first-hand enactment of the initiative. The paper begins with an analysis of Lesson Study, particularly in special education, and the key tenets of Lesson Study followed by a narrative account of the principal. Subsequent to her story, we explored lessons learned in relation to implementing a system change in a school, namely Lesson Study. We learned that a deeper understanding of school culture, sustaining professional development, and collaborative practice, were significant factors enabling the principal and teachers at the center school to embrace, plan, and implement a successful Lesson Study for learners with significant disabilities. In addition, we learned that Lesson Study plays an important role in teacher and student engagement in teaching and learning at the center school and supports teachers to design lessons that are efficacious in meeting the individual needs and higher expectations of students.

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10.12973/ijem.6.2.423
Pages: 423-433
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355
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651
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2

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Progress monitoring of academic achievement is an essential element to prevent learning disorders. A prominent approach is curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Various studies have documented positive effects of CBM on students’ achievement. Nevertheless, the use of CBM is associated with additional work for teachers. The use of tablets may be of help here. Yet, although many advantages of computer- or tablet-based assessments are being discussed in the literature (e. g. innovative item formats, adaptive testing, automated scoring and feedback), there are still concerns regarding the comparability of different assessment modes (paper-pencil vs. tablet). In the study presented, we analyze the CBM data of 98 fourth graders. They processed the exact same computation items once with paper and pen and once in a tablet application. The analyses point to comparable results in the test modes, although some significant deviations can be found at item level. In addition, the children report perceived benefits when working with the tablet.

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10.12973/ijem.6.4.669
Pages: 669-680
cloud_download 1010
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1010
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13

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Today’s individuals are expected to have skills in many areas as a natural consequence of the advances that have been taking place in society and technology. Particularly in developed countries, these skills are also called 21st century skills. Critical, creative and reflective thinking, problem solving and keeping up with the digital age (digital literacy) are some of these skills. Universities play a significant role in raising qualified individuals in our country. Updating the training programs, keeping up with the era and having a say in the digital world makes it a necessity for people who give education in these areas to be competent. From this point of view, this study aimed to explore the digital literacy levels of Turkish academics working in faculties of education and the perceptions of students towards technology integration competence of the academics. In this study, quantitative cross-sectional design was preferred. While selecting the participants, purposeful sampling method was used, and two different participant groups (academics and prospective teachers) were included in the process. Two scales with validity and reliability in the literature were used as data collection tools in the research. In the data collection process, firstly, a survey was administered to academics working in faculties of education, and then another one was conducted with prospective teachers. The results obtained were subjected to quantitative data analysis via SPSS 24 and AMOS 24 software, and descriptive and inferential statistics were generated. The results revealed that the variables of department, age and grade level created a significant difference in the digitalization of academics, whereas the gender variable significantly contributed only to the perceptions of prospective teachers.

description Abstract
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10.12973/ijem.7.1.15
Pages: 15-31
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7

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In modern times, the importance of education cannot be overstated. Beyond the acquisition of knowledge, perhaps the most important aim of education may be the development of character in individuals, including vitality, courage, sensitiveness, and intelligence, from which our society may experience increased prosperity, peace, and freedom. In this paper we address the daunting challenge of achieving successful, widespread, and inclusive university education. How do we enliven and engage the students in our classrooms? How can we help each and every student in the class self-actualize and reach the highest potential for learning? Active learning is one well-established and potent solution for accelerating the accumulation of knowledge. In this paper, an experiment in active learning utilizing team-based adaptive online quizzes in an introductory math finance course involving 378 undergraduate students over two years is conducted to explore the potency of this active learning methodology compared to a control group with traditional teaching. We find active learning unambiguously improves knowledge accumulation in the individual students, while simultaneously bolstering inclusive excellence across all students in the class, as measured by a relevant and meaningful quantitative metric. The paper concludes with a discussion comparing the quality of active vs. traditional teaching methods and offers interpretations of the quantitative results. The results of this paper support the widely accepted theme in the literature that active learning has a positive effect on student performance in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) courses.

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10.12973/ijem.7.2.353
Pages: 353-360
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2

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The article focused on the use of assessment for learning in promoting active learning and learner participation in mathematics. Assessment for learning (AfL) has been found to enhance learning and improve performance. However, teachers’ use of AfL to enhance active learning has not been clearly outlined. This study is part of the broader research study that explored mathematics teachers’ use of AfL to enhance mathematics teaching and learning in primary schools in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg. A case study research-type and a qualitative approach were used to collect data from mathematics teachers. Nine teachers were purposefully selected from whom data were collected using semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. The findings revealed that teachers had limited pedagogical knowledge in using AfL to promote active learning in their classrooms. They failed to apply a learner-centred approach that promotes effective learner participation in mathematics classrooms. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers undergo ongoing continuous development on classroom time management and planning for the effective use of AfL.

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10.12973/ijem.7.3.473
Pages: 473-485
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916
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Through an exploration of language practices in an early years setting, this paper aims to examine discourses about transforming monolingual practice generated during an internally driven action research. Based on a small private nursery in an affluent part of London, this action research was conducted with the intention of reviewing internal practices that support young children who speak English as an additional language (EAL). Parents and practitioners took part in an initial questionnaire (n=21). This was followed by semi-structured interviews (n=3) and a focus group (n=5) with practitioners. The data was analysed considering some of the theoretical points proposed by Bourdieu and the discourse analysis tools suggested by van Leeuwen. Despite the recognition of potential barriers, encouraging positive dispositions towards language diversity were identified. The most significant feature of our examination was the value of local knowledge and the diverse language repertoires encountered in the setting. Our analysis evidence that action research can empower practitioners to challenge monolingual mindsets and to move towards an exploration of alternative (plurilingual) ideas, despite the monolingual ethos imposed by the curriculum and other external regulatory forces.

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10.12973/ijem.8.1.131
Pages: 129-138
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394
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Observational Record and Self-Report of Teacher-Student Performance in High School Lessons

didactic interaction direct observation methodology verbal self-reports teacher performance criteria student performance criteria

Aldo Bazán-Ramírez , Néstor Miguel Velarde-Corrales , María Elena Rodríguez-Pérez , Jorge Guerrero-Barrios , Roberta Brita Anaya-González


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There are different strategies to analyze teacher and student performance when they interact with each other in class. The most used strategies are direct observation and verbal reports. Even though what is observed or reported depends on theoretical frameworks regarding didactic interactions, these must be related to teacher functions such as supervision, providing feedback, and evaluation of student performance. In this study, instruments for observational recording and verbal reports were developed and validated considering teacher functions and their student performance counterparts to compare the degree of correspondence or divergence between data gathered from both strategies. 135 students enrolled in a science class and their teachers participated. The class was taught in a public high school located in center/south Mexico. Classes were videotaped and the corresponding observational records were analyzed. Two months later, verbal reports were administered to students and teachers. Coincidences and differences that were found revealed that observer-observe interaction is conditioned by social norms. These results were interpreted considering the notion of silence as a communicative element.

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10.12973/ijem.8.3.479
Pages: 479-491
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510
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671
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1

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The aim of this study is to capture and analyse perspectives on higher education from the views of five students through in-depth interviews. The students' statements are analyzed in order to gain an understanding of their experiences of developing academic literacies in their university studies. They are regularly visiting the university study workshop for help with their exam assignments. The following questions have been formulated to fulfil the aim of the study: (a) what aspects of studies in higher education do the students express as important, favorable, or unfavorable, for their development of academic literacies? and (b) in what way do the students value the study workshops as an educational tool? The analysis reveals three themes: the importance of explicit support structures, the importance of teachers’ feedback, and the importance of using the students’ pedagogical capital. The results also show that the students highly value the study workshop when they reflect upon the one-to-one feedback, but the support seems to be insufficient both in supporting them to be more independent in their studies and in developing academic literacies from a critical and epistemological point of view.

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10.12973/ijem.8.4.731
Pages: 731-741
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172
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440
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2

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This study focused on teachers' awareness of students' learning situations during distance learning. It took place at the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) - Gabaldon Campus during the academic year 2021-2022. The study employed descriptive-comparative and descriptive-correlational designs. The 249 students were selected using a stratified sampling technique, whereas the 25 teachers were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Findings revealed that teachers are aware of their students' situations. The students believe that they faced learning challenges during distance learning. There is a significant difference between male and female teachers in terms of student learning environment awareness, but no statistically significant difference in the teacher's awareness of the student's learning situation across age groups, service years, and academic rank. There is a significant difference in the learning anxiety of male and female students but not in the learning environment and blended learning readiness. The learning environment and readiness for blended learning do not differ significantly across age groups of students, but anxiety does. A statistically significant difference in student readiness in blended learning was observed based on students' courses but not on the learning environment or anxiety. There is no significant difference in students' learning situations based on family income or parental educational attainment. There was no significant difference in student achievement based on the teachers' level of awareness. Achievement is positively correlated with learning environment and readiness but negatively associated with anxiety. In addition, the study discussed its theoretical and practical implications.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.75
Pages: 75-93
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261
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411
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Internal and external assessment instruments, such as the Vanuatu Standard Test of Achievements (VANSTA) and the Pacific Island Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (PILNA), reveal that mathematics achievements in the Republic of Vanuatu remain below the minimum standard. This study drew on the constructivist grounded theory approach to explore teachers' perspectives of the learning and teaching processes in mathematics education in the Republic of Vanuatu. Specifically, the focus was on the ‘I do-we do-you do’ approach of teaching, which is common in mathematics education in the country. Teachers' opinions about the current situation of mathematics education and possibilities for improving it were extracted using semi-structured interviews with 22 teachers from two randomly selected urban schools. Based on the constructivist grounded theory analysis, four major interlink themes were found. Overall, the findings show that mathematics achievements in the country can be improved through proven discovery-learning strategies for stimulating students' mathematical thinking in the 21st century, such as the ‘try-understand-apply-mastered’ (TUAM) discovery learning process.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.123
Pages: 123-138
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164
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402
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1

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I use the disability studies framework and autoethnography method in this qualitative research to examine my lived experiences in education and their impact on the disability community. The qualitative research method focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This method is about what people think and why they think so. Disability Studies is an interdisciplinary body of intellectual work that positions disability positively and complexly, interrogating rhetoric that disability is a deficit that experts should remedy. Autoethnography is a research method and methodology which uses the researcher’s personal experience as data to describe, analyze and understand cultural experience. I focus on my disability community membership, professional development, and ways I integrate social justice in teacher education to correct education systems into ones that value disabled people. Using the self-study technique, I review my education journey and identities and how they have shaped me into a teacher educator who believes education leverages us to question happenings and provide solutions. I, therefore, reflect on the entwinement of my scholarship and community outreach and how they are geared towards creating and advancing a local and global pluralistic society that values disabled people. My values of collaboration, innovation, integrity, excellence, access, diversity, equity, equality, and inclusion are best practices that dismantle educational barriers and empower educators and disabled people.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.183
Pages: 183-196
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148
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328
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2

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Considering the fact that learning difficulties are mostly related to academic learning, and students first encounter tasks related with academic learning during the pre-school, it is critical for early intervention that the first symptoms of students with potential learning disability are detected by the pre-school teachers. The aim of this research is to examine knowledge levels of pre-school teachers about the characteristics of learning difficulties that 3–6 years old students, in the pre-school period, may show. With this aim in mind, the development of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” was completed with 471 pre-school teachers and pre-school teacher candidates of the last grade of pre-school education program. The research has been done in the survey model with a quantitative approach. The sample of the study consists of 291 pre-school teachers. The data have been collected by means of the “Test for identifying characteristics of learning disabilities in pre-school students (3-6 years)” and analyzed using descriptive statistics techniques. At the end of the research, it has been found that there are no statistically significant differences in knowledge levels of pre-school teachers regarding the cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities in terms of their gender, the program they have graduated from, having taken courses on special education, having taken courses on learning disabilities, the types of institutions they worked at, and their class sizes. It has been found that there are statistically significant differences in their knowledge levels about cognitive, affective, social and motor characteristics of learning disabilities according to the length of service, teaching students with learning disabilities, having inclusive students in their class, having a relative in need of special education, and teaching students with learning disabilities variables.

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.215
Pages: 215-226
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201
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422
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This research aims to prove and find out the influence of local wisdom-based learning media on the character of students in Indonesia. This research uses a quantitative method with a meta-analysis approach. The research data were analyzed using the 0.8.5 version of JASP software. The eligibility criteria used include: (a) The publications must be searchable in search databases such as Google Scholar, ERIC, DOAJ, Research Gate, and or ScienceDirect; (b) The publications are reputable indexed; (c) The publications must relate to learning media based on local wisdom and student character; (d) The publications must be in the range of 2015 to 2023; (e) The articles are worth (r), (t), or (F); (6) N ≥ 30. The results of the analysis of 30 studies showed that there was a significant effect of learning media on the character of students in Indonesia (z = 9.700; p < .001; 95% CI [.987; 1.487]). This effect is categorized as very strong (rRE = 1.237). This meta-analysis study is the result of accurate, valid, and representative research reviewed because publication bias was not detected. Thus, it can be concluded that learning media based on local wisdom has a big influence on student character.  

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10.12973/ijem.9.1.237
Pages: 237-248
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202
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442
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The Pedagogical Role of the Primary-School Headteacher: Insights From Greece

headteacher pedagogical leadership school principal school climate school life

Nikolaos Alexopoulos , Thomas Babalis , Konstantina Tsoli , Stavroula Delioridou


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The pedagogical and didactic guidance of teachers has been linked, in the relevant literature, to the school management’s adoption of the model of pedagogical leadership as well as to the assurance of a series of factors that influence it. This study aims at investigating the pedagogical role of the principal in Greek primary schools. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire completed by 133 Greek primary school head teachers. Results show that head teachers consider that their pedagogical role has mainly to do with the pedagogical climate, psychosocial and pedagogical guidance of the school unit. Additionally, the research results show that head teachers carry out their pedagogical role cooperating and communicating mainly with the members of the educational community of the school. Another noteworthy finding of the present study is that the factors that support head teachers in their pedagogical leadership role, are hard to exist in hierarchical educational realities such as Greece. The originality of the paper draws attention to the school's socio-economic environment, which significantly influences school leadership. Conclusions on the implications of the study are made and directions for future research are suggested.

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10.12973/ijem.9.3.535
Pages: 535-549
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201
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371
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The Challenging Path of Welcoming and Inclusion of Foreign Students in Schools: A Systematic Review

interculturality migration school coexistence school inclusion school integration welcoming

María Rodríguez Riquelme , María Belén Ortega-Senet , Caterine Galaz , Andrew Philominraj


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Interculturality, inclusion, and diversity are generally associated with bilingualism in countries with different socio-cultural identities, but rarely with school coexistence among students hailing from different backgrounds. The present systematic review is framed in a descriptive-qualitative approach since its main objective is to provide an account of the relationship between welcoming, school coexistence, and the integration and inclusion processes in schools in countries receiving foreign migrant families. For this purpose, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EBSCO, and SCiELO databases were searched using a reference chain, and according to search results, 26 empirical studies retrieved from those databases published between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The main findings indicate that the inclusion process is developed through the acculturation and disciplining devices of foreign children to the dominant national logic, which marks a hierarchical difference between nationalities. They also highlight the recognition of cultural diversity under the logic of folklorization and a vision that focuses on academic achievement rather than on the particularities that cultural diversity can contribute to social relations and learning within the school.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.801
Pages: 1-18
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227
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915
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Revolutionizing Education: Navigating the New Landscape Post-COVID-19: A Scoping Review

covid-19 impact new landscape scoping review

Abdul Fattah Mat Nang , Siti Mistima Maat , Muhammad Sofwan Mahmud


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Education systems worldwide have been significantly disrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic, creating an immediate need for a revamp of conventional teaching and learning techniques. To explore how this has affected the educational landscape, a scoping review was conducted. This scoping review aimed to examine the changes that occurred in the education field and to explore how it has transformed the educational landscape review. Using Arksey and O'Malley's methodology, 51 articles were selected for analysis from two leading databases: Scopus and Web of Science. All chosen articles were then subjected to thematic analysis. Three main aspects impacted by this global event were uncovered, which are technological advancements and digital transformation, changes in pedagogy and teaching methods, and mental health and well-being issues. This scoping review provides valuable insights into one of the most critical sectors affected by COVID-19, which can assist with planning future strategies for similar crises.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.819
Pages: 19-33
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143
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970
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Effectiveness of Project-Based Learning on STEAM-Based Student’s Worksheet Analysis With Ecoprint Technique

motivation steam student creativity worksheet

Irdalisa , Zulherman , Mega Elvianasti , Sri Adi Widodo , Erlia Hanum


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The objective of this research was to assess the efficacy of project-based learning in enhancing the analysis of student worksheets in the domains of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) with the integration of the ecoprint technique, focusing on its influence on student motivation and creativity. This investigation was conducted as a quasi-experiment involving a sample size of 150 students selected through cluster sampling. Data collection was executed using standardized tests, with instrument validity ascertained through the Aiken index and instrument reliability determined via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis (MANOVA) and descriptive quantitative methods. The study's findings reveal a significant disparity in the mean scores of both learning motivation and student creativity. In conclusion, the implementation of project-based learning coupled with STEAM-based student worksheet analysis utilizing the ecoprint technique yields a substantial enhancement in learning motivation and student creativity. These findings underscore the success of employing STEAM-based worksheets in conjunction with the ecoprint method to foster students' motivation and creativity, as ecoprint inherently encompasses all STEAM components within the manufacturing process.

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10.12973/ijem.10.1.923
Pages: 123-135
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